Abbreviations Common in Erlichian Grading

agr = agreement (problem); e.g., subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement.

ambig. = ambiguous (in a way not useful): the grammatical unit can have more than 1 meaning in a confusing way.

aud. = audience (problem); e.g., you assume more knowledge on the part of your audience than your readers are likely to possess.

CA = case (mistake); e.g., using "I" when you need "me" or vice-versa.

cg = (in)congruity: two elements just don't go together.

cl = unclear, clarity (problem); clarify.

comp = (incomplete) comparison/comparative or similar construction; e.g., "Gortox has more cleaning power!" (Than what? Beating clothes against a rock with a stick?) "They were so sweet!" (That you liked them? That you got suspicious?)

CS = comma splice (using a comma where you need a period or semicolon).

d = diction (problem), word choice (problem); wrong word.

DM = dangling modifier (i.e., an introductory modifier doesn't go with the rest of the sentence, usually because of a change in subject [e.g., "Walking down the street the buildings were seen."]). See below, MM.

DoD = develop (this) or drop (it).

emph = emphasis; emphasize.

esp. = especially.

frag = (unjustified) sentence fragment.

gen. = general, generally, (hasty) generalization.

id. = idiom (problem); we just don't say it that way.

inf. = (too) informal | make less formal.

ital. = Italicize (or underline) word or phrase indicated. (See rom.)

k = awkward (construction).

MM = misplaced modifier. See above, DM.

NA = Not Acceptable; re-write this (essay).

non seq = non sequitur ("It doesn't follow"). What you say may be true, but it isn't proved by your argument. (Or: Some logic problem.)

opt. = option, optional.

pass. = (misuse of) passive voice. (Unless you have a good reason to use the passive voice, use the active: "I dropped the butter" rather than "The butter was dropped." This is an ethical as well as a stylistic matter.)

poss = possessive (case); see below, apostrophe symbol.

q = question.

R(?) = how is this relevant?

R&R = redundant (and repetitive).

ref = reference (usually of pronouns), reference problem, referent (i.e., that which is referred to).

rhet = rhetoric, rhetorical.

rhetQ = rhetorical question.

rev. = revision | rev. opt. = revision option: you've got 7 days from the day the essays were returned to the class to get me a revision for higher grade.

rom. = Put in roman type (remove italics or underlining).

s. = sentence.

sic = thus ("This is what it says") | sic? = thus? "Is this what you wanted to say?"

sp = spelling (error) | sp (circled) = Spell this out.

SST = some such thing: a suggested improvement.

Stet or STET = let it be; ignore attempted correction. "Never mind."

Thud! = anticlimax; improve climax.

tr. = transposition; transpose elements as indicated by trans = transition (problem).

w = wordy.

w/ = with | w/o = without.