Richard D. Erlich

711 Island View Circle

Port Hueneme, CA 93041




CLOCKWORKS 2: An Annotated List of Works Useful for the Study of the Human/Machine Interface in SF




(Run off 22 August 2006)




RFS = Robert Shelton, Lyman Briggs School, Michigan State U.



Clockworks OUTTAKES + Supplemental




SF Ency.                                              The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1979)

Ency. of SF (1993)                   The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1993)





CGI                                    Computer-Generated Images/Imagery

IMDb The Internet Movie Database

IRL                                     "In Real Life," the everyday, noncybernetic areas outside Cyberspace and the Internet, without getting into ontological issues of what is real. 

JFA                                    Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts

po-mo                                Postmodern, Postmodernism, Postmodernist

Psi, Psi-powers                 Paranormal psychological powers: telepathy, telekinesis, teleportation, precognition

SFRA Review                    Science Fiction Research Association Review

VR                                      Virtual Reality

WWW                                       World Wide Web, the Internet



1. REF, 9/IX/92            Altman, Mark A., compiler.  See below, this section, under STAR TREK.



1.  Ref., RDE, 00/XII/00           Anatomy of Wonder 4.  Neil Barron, ed.  New Providence, NJ: R. R. Bowker, 1995.  **¢+Fourth edn. of the indispensable Anatomy of Wonder texts, which we have consulted for the annotated biblio.s of primary and secondary literature in SF. 



1. REF, RDE, 07/I/93   Bleiler, Everett F.  Science Fiction: The Early Years.  Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1991.  **¢+Starting with Johannes Kepler's Somnium (publ. 1634), "a full description of more than 3,000 science-fiction stories from earliest times to the appearance of the genre magazines in 1930"—EFB quoted by Ray B. Browne, rev. in JPC 26.1 (Summer 1992): 197, our source for this entry. 



1. REF, RDE, 08/II/93  Broderick, Mich.  Nuclear Movies: A Critical Analysis and Filmography of International Feature Length Films Dealing with Experimentation, Aliens, Terrorism, Holocaust and Other Disaster Scenarios, 1914-1989.  Jefferson NC: McFarland, 1991.  **¢+Covers "854 films, made-for-TV movies[,] and mini-series dramas . . . [released] between 1914 and 1989, with some mentions of films released as late as mid-1991."  The plot synopses are very brief summaries with limited cross-references.  Covers a very broad range film.  Rev. Paul Brians, SFRA Review #198 (June 1992): 27-28, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



1.  Ref., Maly, 27/VI/02            Gilzinger, Donald.  "Approaching Neuromancer: Secondary Sources."  SFRA Review #238 (February 1999):17-18.



1.  Ref., Maly, 01/VII/02           Hall, Hal.  "Approaching Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Blade Runner: Bibliographies."  SFRA Review #240 (June 1999): 9-23.




1.  Ref., Maly, 27/VI/02            Hall, Hal. "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources." SFRA Review #238 (February 1999): 19-24.



1.  Ref., Maly, 01/VII/02           Kolb, W.M. "Blade Runner: An Annotated Bibliography." Literature/Film Quarterly 18 (1990): 19-64.  **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Blade Runner Bibliographies," q.v. under Reference. 



1.  Ref, TW, 13/I/95      Spector, Robert Donald.  The English Gothic: A Bibliographic Guide to Writers from Horace Walpole to Mary Shelley.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984.  **¢+An impressively careful piece of work.  Covers the definitions of "gothic," and then continues with a discussion of the contribution of the major writers in the field.  Less a biblio. guide than a research guide, directed more toward advanced students than scholars.  Excellent historical breadth, making this a useful reference for historicizing the theme of the human/machine interface and locating it within a tradition of other confrontations between human and Other. 






1. REF, 9/IX/92            "Episode Guide [to Star Trek: The Next Generation]."  Mark A. Altman, compiler.  Cinefantastique 23.2/3 (Oct. 1992): 35 f.  **¢+Covers the 26 episodes from 23 September 1991 to 15 June 1992. 



1. REF, 29/I/93            Star Trek: Deep Space Nine.  Altman, Mark A. et al., compilers  Cinefantastique 23.6 (April 1993): 16 f.  **¢+Basic information on the Deep Space Nine cast, "bible, production staff, and opening episode ("Emissary," week of 4 Jan. 1993 [q.v. under Drama]). 



1.  Ref., RDE, 12/XII/95           "Third Season Guide" to Star Trek: Deep Space Nine 1994-95 season.  Dale Kutzera, compiler.  Cinefantastique 27.4/5 (Jan. 1996): 90 f.  **¢+Citations, annotations, and evaluations of Deep Space Nine from 24 Sept. 1994-17 June 1995, Episode 47-Production Number 72 (sic: "Episode" up to 51, thereafter "Production Number").  Abbreviated below as "3rd Season Guide: DS9." 



1.  Ref., RDE, 12/XII/95           "Voyager Guide" 1995.  Dale Kutzera, compiler.  Cinefantastique 27.4/5 (Jan. 1996): 34 f.  **¢+Citations, annotations, and evaluations of Star Trek: Voyager from 16 Jan.-2 Oct. 1995, Production Numbers 101/102-119, aired as 206. 



1.  Ref., RDE, 18/XII/96           "[Star Trek]: Deep Space Nine Episode Guide."  Cinefantastique 28.4/5 (Nov. 1996): 26 f.  **¢+Covers the episodes from 30 Sept. 1995 to 6 Jan. 1996. 



1.  Ref., RDE, 18/XII/96           "[Star Trek] Voyager Episode Guide."  Cinefantastique 28.4/5 (Nov. 1996): 76 f.  **¢+Covers the episodes from 28 Aug. 1995 to 20 May 1996. 



1.  REF, RDE, 20/I/95  Trek: The Unauthorized A-Z.  Hal Schuster and Wendy Rathbone, compilers (with WR doing the research).  New York: HarperPrism-HarperPaperbacks (HarperCollins), 1994.  **¢+"This encyclopedia covers all the Star Trek series: Classic, The Next Generation, Deep Space 9, the films, and the animated series" but not the 1995 Voyager series.  Includes "names of actors, writers, and other people involved with Star Trek," plus "characres, ships, events, locations, and terminology."  Covers "material through the sixth season" of Next Generation "but not beyond.  DS9 is covered for its first, short season only" (WR's Foreword quoted). 



1.  Ref., RDE, 03/VI/96            Uram, Sue.  "Classic Star Trek Episode Guide."  Cinefantastique 27.11-12 (July 1996): 26 f. **¢+In honor of the 30th anniversary of Star Trek, a complete, annotated videography of the classic Star Trek canon, "listed in the order in which they were filmed.



1.  Ref., RDE, 10/IX/95            Video Hound's Golden Movie Retriever: 1995.  Detroit: Visible Ink P-Gale Research, 1995.  And other years.  **¢+Indispensable tool for older as well as recent films.  Cited in our text as Video Hound (year). 



1.  REF, RDE, 00/III/95            Willingham, Ralph.  Science Fiction and the Theatre.  Cited under Drama.  *¢+Includes an appendix with an annotated list of 328 S. F. plays, theatre pieces, performance art pieces, etc.. 



2.  ANTH., Maly, 27/VI/02         Alien Zone II: The Spaces of Science Fiction Cinema.  Annette Kuhn, ed.  New York: Verso, 1999. **¢+ Cited in Brooks Landon's "Bodies in Cyberspace," q.v. under Literary Criticism. 



2.  ANTH., Maly, 01/VII/02        Cybersexualities: A Reader on Feminist Theory, Cyborgs, and Cyberspace.  Jenny Wolmark, ed.  Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1999.  **+ contains essays divided into three parts discussing "Technology, Embodiment, and Cyberspace, Cybersubjects: Cyborgsand Cyberpunks, and Cyborg Futures."  Emphasizes femininity in cyberlit—particularly in cyberspace and VR. Rev. Cynthia Davidson, SFRA Review #249 (November/December 2000): 19.



2. ANTH, RDE, 27/VI/94           Dowling, Terry.  Rynosseros.  N.p.: Guild America, n.d.  "Only North American Edition."  (c) 1990.  Available through the S. F. Book Club.  "Ditmar Winner / 1991 Australian SF Achievement Award."  **¢+Linked coll. of SF stories about Tom Tyson, captain of the sand- and road-sailing ship Rynosseros, in a future Australia around the time of the (next?) return of Halley's Comet ([155])—an Australia in which true AI has been developed, and in which the Dreamtime exists and is effective (cf. Egyptian myth in Norman Mailer's Ancient Evenings (1983).  Relevant stories: "Colouring the Captains," "The Robot Is Running Away from the Trees," and "Spinners"—all unacknowledged, so may be printed here for the first time. 



2. ANTH, RDE, 09/II/93            Grand Master's Choice.  Andre Norton, ed.  New York: Tor, 1991.  **¢+See for recent rpt. of I. Asimov's "The Last Question" and J. Williamson's "With Folded Hands."  See also for L. Sprague de Camp's time-travel story, "A Gun for Dinosaur" (1956).  Rev. Tanya Gardener-Scott, SFRA Review #202 (Dec. 1992): 44-45, our source for most of this entry. 



2.  ANTH., RDE, 17/V/01          New Worlds vol. 64, no. 222.  David Garnett, ed.  Michael Moorcock, consulting ed.  Clarkston, GA: White Wolf, 1997.  **¢+Relevant contents: Pat Cadigan, "The Emperor's New Reality"; Eric Brown, "Ferryman"; Peter F. Hamilton and Graham Joyce, "The White Stuff"; Noel K. Hannan, "A Night on the Town"; Ian Watson, "A Day Without Dad"; Graham Charnock, "A Night on Bare Mountain"—cited under Fiction. 



2.  ANTH., RDE, 07/V/01          Laumer, Keith.  Nine By Laumer.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967.  **¢+Coll. including "Cocoon," "Dinochrome," "End as a Hero," "Placement Test," "The Long Remembered Thunder," "The Walls" (q.v. under Fiction) and Harlan Ellison's "Introduction: The Universe According to Laumer" (q.v. under Literary Criticism). 



2.  ANTH., RDE, 07/VII/95        The Science Fiction Stories of Rudyard Kipling.  John Brunner, ed.  Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Twilight-Carol, 1994.  **+Collects among other stories "The Ship That Found Herself," "Wireless," "With the Night Mail," "As Easy as A.B.C.," and "The Eye of Allah"—all cited under Fiction.  Also collects ".007" (1898): a kind of adolescent-male initiation story of an .007 locomotive that Brunner finds "a story featuring intelligent machines" (30); we find it a story featuring locomotives that talk. 



2. ANTH, RDE, 13/V/94            The Year's Best Science Fiction: Tenth Annual Collection.  Gardner Dozois, ed.  New York: St. Martin's, 1993.  ISSN 0743-1740**¢+SENT TO DAN BARNHIZER, 13/V/94



2.  ANTH., RDE, 15/VII/01        Zelazny, Roger.  The Last Defender of Camelot.  New York: Pocket Books, 1980.  Coll. including "Passion Play," **¢+




3.004     Adams, Douglas.  The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. © 1979. New York: Harmony, n.d.  Rpt. by Harmony for [S.F.] Book Club Edition. 


                     Novelization of radio series.  Satire that includes a descent motif and comic machines: a melancholic robot (a mechanical/cybernetic version of A. A. Milne's Eeyore in Winnie the Pooh) , an overly cheerful computer, and two AI super computers.  Explicit satire on bureaucracy: even as Arthur Dent's house is bulldozed for a by-pass, the Earth is obliterated for a hyperspace highway.  See below for sequels; see Drama for TV series and audiocassettes.



3. FICTION, RDE, 29/I/93         Adams, Douglas.  Mostly Harmless.  New York: Harmony Books, 1992.  **¢+Specifically handles the literal clockwork of a Swiss-made watch and its problems on planets many light-years from Earth (173), plus a godlike (and birdlike) version of the new Hitchhikers's Guide to the Galaxy Mark II (140; see also chs. 17-18). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 29/XI/99     Adams, Scott.  The Dilbert Future.  1997.  Read by SA.  Audiocassette.  Harper Audio 1997.  **¢+One "prediction" contradicts the negative view of STNG Borg et al. and takes a positive comic view of becoming a cyborg, including noting the handiness of built-in modular tools. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 11/VII/01    Aldiss, Brian W.  "Supertoys In Other Seasons."  First published Supertoys Last All Summer Long and Other Stories of the Future.  New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2001.  For publication updates, see <>.**¢+Sequel to "Supertoys Last All Summer Long," and "Supertoys When Winter Comes" (both of which see, this section).  The story starts in "Throwaway Town," with David "led by a large Fixer-Mixer; cf. and contrast B.A.'s "Who Can Replace a Man?" (below, this section).  David is repaired, declares "The world has been big since my Mummy died," and asserts that he had a Mummy and wishes it be known that he is "not a machine" (23).  The robots of Throwaway Town are developed briefly in this section, and with wry sympathy; there is a reference to "The chief computer" that scraps robots—perhaps with less sympathy (30).  David's "Daddy," now much poorer, retrieves him from Throwaway Town; David asks him, "How can I not be human, Daddy?  I'm not like the Dancing Devlins or other people I met in Throwaway.  I feel happy or sad.  I love people.  Therefore I am human" (31).  Henry takes David to the production floor where "He confronted a thousand Davids.  All looking alike.  All dressed alike.  All standing alert and alike.  All silent, staring ahead.  A thousand replicants of himself.  Unliving" (33-34).  The Narrator tells us, "For the first time David really understood" that "This was what he was.  A product.  Only a product," a thought that, so to speak, kills David (34).  His father and a friend give David a new and better brain and, after "He had been dead," they charge him up, give him a new Teddy, and see "if he would live again": after summer and winter, "Well, it's spring now," and David arises and tells of "a strange dream," his first.  In the last line of the story, we're told "It"—and a richly ambiguous "It" this is—was almost human" (34-35).  Note very well for questions of humanity and identity in the age of cybernetic reproduction.  Cf. and contrast the "Throwaway Town" sequence in A.I., q.v. under Drama.  For "product," see RoboCop under Drama. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 19/VI/00, 07/VII/01 Aldiss, Brian W.  "Supertoys Last All Summer Long."  Harper's Bazaar Dec. 1969.  Coll. The Moment of Eclipse.  London: Faber & Faber, 1970.  Supertoys Last All Summer Long and Other Stories of the Future.  New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2001.  For publication updates, see <>.**¢+In an overpopulated near-future world, a small number eat well, but many of them still suffer from loneliness.  We learn about a day in the life of Monica and Henry Swinton, their son David, and David's toy, Teddy.  Monica spends the day in their apartment "in one of the ritziest city-block, half a kilometre [sic: British spelling] above the ground": "Embedded in other apartments, their apartment had no windows on to the outside; nobody wanted to see the overcrowded external world," and their "Whologram" (sic) could provide the illusion of a Georgian mansion surrounded by plantlife.  It's a big day for the family.  As Managing Director of Synthank, Henry has just released "an intelligent" (but not too intelligent) "synthetic life-form" in the form of "a full-size serving man."  This model goes beyond the "mechanicals on the market with minicomputers for brains—plastic things without life, supertoys" and links "computer circuitry with synthetic flesh."  The new model is "a product of the computer.  Without computers, we could never have worked through the sophisticated biochemics that go into synthetic flesh"; it is also "an extension of the computer—for he will contain a computer in his own head," and later models will be "linked to the World Data Network" and may come fully male or female (with the promise of something like android/robot sex).  "Personal isolation will be banished forever."  Monica's news is that she and Henry have won the lottery and will be allowed by the government to conceive a child.  Teddy and David discuss what is real and what is not, and whether Mummy loves David.  Mummy doesn't (though she had tried), but she'll definitely keep on Teddy, and they'll have David checked at the factory to have his "verbal communication-centre" fixed—and then they'll see.  David asks Teddy, "Mummy and Daddy are real, aren't they," and Teddy tells him that it's a silly question: "Nobody knows what 'real' really means."  Indeed; even Teddy comes across only a little less real than Henry and Monica.  Source story for Kubrick/Spielberg's A.I., q.v. under Drama. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 11/VII/01    Aldiss, Brian W.  "Supertoys When Winter Comes."  First published Supertoys Last All Summer Long and Other Stories of the Future.  New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2001.  For publication updates, see <>.**¢+Sequel to "Supertoys Last All Summer Long," second in a trilogy (so far) ending with "Supertoys in Other Seasons" (both of which see, this section).  See for the "Ambient" as a kind of Internet system, with hints of E.M. Forster's communications devices in "The Machine Stops."  Note "Mummy's" saying explicitly of the robot boy (David) and supertoy Teddy, "You'll never grow up" (16); cf. and contrast Harlan Ellison's "Jeffty Is Five" (1977; coll. Dick Allen, Science Fiction: The Future, 2nd edn.).  Most centrally "SYWC" develops the question of the "reality" of David and Teddy: with the "death" of the serving-man robot Jules, David's taking apart much of Teddy, David's cracking his own face, and David attacking "the house's control centre," causing much of the hologram house to disappear (19-21).  Holding "a sickly rose" (unlike Mummy's perfect roses [9]), David stands "Over her [dead] body" and says, to end the story, "I am human, Mummy.  I love you and I feel sad just like real people, so I must be human . . .  Mustn't I?" (22).  Cf. and definitely contrast ending of Ellison's "Jeffty," where what spin-doctors might call an electrical event leaves the child dead and the parents, in one sense, free. 



3. CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES            Alexander, Marc.  The Mist Lizard.  London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1977; rpt. Pan Books, 1980.  **¢+Children's literature.  Features a robot.



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/V/97      Allen, Roger MacBride.  Isaac Asimov's Caliban (vt. Caliban?).  New York: Ace, 1993.  "An Ace Book / published by arrangement with Byron Preiss Visual Publications, Inc." ("'Isaac Asimov's Caliban' is a trademark of Byron Preiss Visual Publications, Inc."; and "Ace Books are published by the Berkley Publishing Group . . . ."**¢+An addition to I. Asimov's Spacer/Settler series, in the tradition of the robot/detective stories "Caves of Steel" and "Naked Sun."  Balances fairly Spacer vs. Settler approaches to technology—with Spacers dependent upon AI robots—and examines the possibility that Spacer society is becoming decadent from a master/slave relationship with robots.  Interesting for the relationship between the local Sheriff and his robot assistant, the question of the uses and limits of robots for police work, the continuing of Asimov's examination of the Three Laws of Robotics, and the introduction into Asimov space of New Law and No Law gravitonic-brain robots.  The New Laws are (1) "A robot may not injure a human being" eliminating old First Law prohibition against allowing a human to be hurt through inaction; (2) A robot must cooperate with"—not "obey"—human beings except where such cooperation would conflict with the First Law"; (3) A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection does not conflict with the First Law," eliminating reference here to the Second Law, hence "Robotic self-preservation is made as important as utility."  Plus the New Fourth Law, "A robot may do anything it likes except where such action would violate the First, Second, or Third Law" (214-15).  The No Law robots must work out morality for himself and herself (these robots have no sex, but they are gendered).  See below, this section, RMA's Inferno.  (Note: The robot called Donald is supposed to be in a series named for Shakespearean characters.  "Donald" does not appear in The Harvard Concordance to Shakespeare.  I suspect it's a joke—that in the far future a character of Walt Disney's creation [Donald Duck] would be remembered as by Shakespeare.)



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/V/97      Allen, Roger MacBride.  Isaac Asimov's Inferno (vt. Inferno?).  New York: Ace, 1994.  "An Ace Book / published by arrangement with Byron Preiss Visual Publications, Inc." ("'Isaac Asimov's Caliban' is a trademark of Byron Preiss Visual Publications, Inc."; and "Ace Books are published by the Berkley Publishing Group . . . ."**¢+Sequel to Caliban (q.v. above), and another addition to I. Asimov's Spacer/Settler series and robot-detective stories.  Omitable if one has read Caliban, but introduces a potentially interesting character: Prospero, a New Law robot who combines philosophy and pro-robot political action (cf. and contrast "his" namesake in Shakespeare's The Tempest). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 13/V/94      Allen, Roger MacBride.  The Ring of Charon.  New York: Tor-Tom Doherty Associates, 1990.  [S. F. Book Club], no ISBN**¢+"First Book of the Hunted Earth."  Larry Chao, "an innovative thinker involved in Pluto's gravity control program," performs an unauthorized experiment in which he "activates the human-created mecahnical ring around" Charon, which results in a gravity beam "detected by an alien spy—a half-organic, half-mechanical being who has been waiting for eons" in the Terran Moon.  The Earth disappears (cover notes).  SENT TO DAVID G. SCHAPPERT AT WORK ADDRESS: KEMP LIBRARY / E. STROUDLSBURG U.



3.  FICTION, RDE, 11/VII/93    Allen, Roger MacBride.  The Modular Man.  New York: Bantam, [1992].  (Bantam is part of Bantam Doubleday Dell [sic] Publishing Group, Inc.).  With an essay by Isaac Asimov, "Intelligent Robots and Cybernetic Organisms" (cited under Literary Criticism).  "The Next Wave / Book 4."  **¢+Perhaps too philosophically rigorous for its esthetic good, MM is an important S. F. thought-experiment on cyborgs, total prosthesis, and the mind/body problem.  A robotics experts transfers his mind into a house maintenance unit (a very fancy vacuum cleaner—now a robot), in the process killing his body; when the robot is charged with murdering the man, the man's wife (a quadriplegic attorney who operates a remote body) defends the robot in court.  Insightfully raises philosophical, legal, economic, and ethical questions.  Cf. and contrast the following works.  For when a machine becomes human: I. Asimov's "Bicentennial Man," R. Zelazny's "For a Breath I Tarry"; for a woman operating a highly advanced waldo version of herself: T. Lee's Electric Forest and J. Tiptree, Jr.'s "The Girl Who Was Plugged In"; for human minds inside machines: J. McElroy's Plus, K. O'Donnell's Mayflies, J. Sladek's The MŸller-Fokker Effect (and the works crosslisted with those entries); for total prosthesis: D. Knight's "Masks," C. L. Moore's "No Woman Born," and F. Pohl's Man Plus—all cited under Fiction.  For economic issues, note J. Swift's Struldbrugs in ch. 10 of "A Voyage to Laputa" in Gulliver's Travels (cited by its more formal vt in this section), and the Struldbrugs's more immediately relevant S. F. incarnation in Frederik Pohl's and C. M. Kornbluth's Gladiator-at-Law (1955), a novel featuring a pair of obscenely rich people who get richer by technologically extending their lives. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 05/XII/98    Amis, Marin.  "The Janitor on Mars (Reflections on the future of the universe)."  New Yorker, 26 Oct. & 2 Nov. 1998): 208 f., to 228.  **¢+The "Janitor" is a very ancient Martian robot, paired in the narrarion with a human janitor on Earth.  The Janitor on Mars tells humankind the history of Mars and Earth and the universes (plural) generally: a story it has waited to tell until we are doomed and in which our insignificance is stressed.  The Janitor likes human art—we excell at art, and only art, even by more than universal standards—otherwise, it is not very nice to us.  From the point of view of the human janitor, "his Martian counterpart" is a soul-brother and hero: "The air of brusque obstructiveness, the grudge-harboring slant of his gaze" plus "something subtler," something "that struck Pop," the human janitor, "as so quintessentially janitorial.  Alertness to the threat of effort . . . .  The day has come, he thought.  The day when at last the janitors ..." (215-16)—the thought isn't completed, but the Janitorial "self-sufficiency" and contempt for humanity (216) may be balanced by something happening to Pop and humankind.  "In this new time, when he, in common with everyone else on Earth, was submitting to an obscure yet disgustingly luminous reaffiliation, Pop Jones found that thing in himself that had never been there before: the necessary species of self-love" (228).  In the ambiguous ending, this new self-love may lead to some moments of goodness, or horror. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/I/00        Andersen, Hans Christian.  Emperor's Nightingale.  **¢+ Cf. W. B. Yeat's  "Sailing to Byzantium," q.v. this section.



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Anderson, Poul.  "The Critique of Impure Reason."  If, Nov. 1962.  Coll. Time and Stars.  New York: Doubleday, 1964.  **¢+Robot story using "humour and a relatively gentle irony" (B. Stableford, S. F. Ency., "Robots"). 



3.  FICTION, DDB, 23/I/95        Anderson, Pohl.  Harvest of Stars.  New York: TOR-Tom Doherty Associates, 1993.  ISBN 0-312-85277-0.  **¢+In a repressive future America, the patriarch/feudal lord/Chief-Executive-Officer of the only corporation exploiting off-Earth reseources imprints his mind into a computer.  A copy of the computer personality is stolen and used by the repressive government to try to seize control of the corporation.  After defeating both his "evil twin" and the government, the personality then leads its corporation and employees off Earth to colonize and terraform the Alpha Centauri system and to flee the advent of AI on Earth.  Other protagonists are also imprinted into computers, one eventually joining the terraforming computer net to become a computerized Gaia.  Eventually, the remnants of the human race are all imprinted and sent off to colonize other worlds prepared for them by copies of the computerized Gaia (Barnhizer).  Deals with the "cutting-edge" motifs of VR, AI, and biotech (cover notes). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 21/XII/96    Anderson, Poul.  Tau Zero.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970.  New York: Berkley, 1976.  "A short version of this novel appeared in Galaxy Science Fiction for June and August 1967 under the title 'To Outlive Eternity.'"  **¢+Except for the first and last chapters, TZ set upon the Leonora Christine, a very large but not huge exploration/colonizing ship with a Bussard (scoop) star-drive engine.  An accident prevents the ship from reaching its destination, and the crew and explorers continue on, gathering speed.  Our universe operates under the rule that any initial and subsequent times (t [Tau]) within a frame of reference is equal to one's velocity (v) squared divided by the speed of light squared subtracted from 1. 

t = Ã 1- v2/c2

Given the huge value of the speed of light squared, at ordinary velocities t is effectively equal to 1 (1- a very small number): and, in the words of a William Gibson characer, "time be time."  But as velocity increases to signifcant percentages of the speed of light, time within a frame of reference slows, and at the speed of light, v = c and Tau becomes zero: time would stop.  Picking up tremendous speed, with t approaching zero, the ship and its starting inhabitants outlive our universe.  The climactic situation is humans within a mechanized and cybernetic environment, outside the universe, which is collapsing (in the ÇBig CrunchÈ) into a new "monobloc" (a k a cosmic egg), for the next Big Bang.  Cf. and contrast generation starships.



3.  FICTION, Brian Wolter (English 113), 02/XII/95       Anthony, Piers (Piers Anthony Dillingham Jacob).  Apprentice Adept series.  Includes Double Exposure omnibus, Out of Phaze (1987), Robot Adept (1988), Unicorn Point (1989)—q.v. below—and Phaze Doubt (1990).  **¢+Series is significant for juxtaposing SF and fantasy worlds, separated by a curtain (for a portal motif), and mixing sentient machines with werewolves and unicorns, a computer Oracle with a feudal society threatened by environmental degredation through over-mining of a mineral.  Cf. and contrast R. Zelazny's Trumps of Doom (see below, this section). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 25/VI/03     Appleton, Victor.  Tom Swift and His Giant Cannon, or The Longest Shots on Record.  New York: Grosset & Dunlop, n.d. (© 1913).  Cloth.  Illus.  Series as of 1913 listed as Tom Swift Among the Diamond Makers, Tom Swift in the Caves of Ice, Tom Swift in the City of Gold, Tom Swift in Captivity—plus twelve books of the formula Tom Swift and His Motor Cycle, Motor Boat, Airship, Submarine Boat, Electric Runabout, Wireless Message, Sky Racer, Electric Rifle, Air Glider, Wizard Camera, Giant Search Light (and Giant Cannon).  As of June 2003, several Tom Swifts were on-line at <>.  **¢+Chapters include III. "Planning a Big Gun," VI. "Testing the Waller Gun," IX. "The New Powder," XII. "A Powerful Blast," XIII. "Casting the Cannon," XVIII. "The Doped Powder," XX. "The Government Accepts," XXIV. "The Longest Shot," XXV [last chapter] "The Long-Shot Mine" (pp. iii-iv).  See for the science and technology of armament and munitions development, sometimes explained directly "for the benefit of you boys who"—for example—"have never seen a big, modern cannon" (53; ch. 6), sometimes worked into dialog as Tom explains things.  Plot, such as it is, has Tom's cannon developed and accepted for defense of the new Panama Canal in spite of dastardly efforts at sabotage by a "German officer of high rank [É who] had been dismissed from the secret service of his country for bad conduct" (211-12; ch. 25).  CAUTION: Koku, Tom's "giant servant" (73; ch. 9) and "Eradicate Sampson, the aged colored man" (7; ch. 1) also on staff, speak in dialect offensive to 21st-c. ears and hardly Mark Twain by far earlier standards; there are also bad-taste attempts at ethnic humor (100; ch. 12). 



3. FICTION, RDE, 03/IX/94      ADD TO ISAAC ASIMOV'S ROBOT CITY: Audio tapes available from Caedmon. 



3. FICTION, 16/V/92, rev. RDE 10/VI/93-27/XII/94       Asimov, Isaac.  Foundation and Earth.  Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1986.  **¢+Brings together IA's robot and Foundation series.  Deals briefly with the idea that extreme individualism can become downright patholgoical in a society "riddled with robots" (226-27; ch. 59).  End of novel recounts how the robot Giskard (who could "sense and adjust" human minds) propounded the "Zeroth Law" of Robotics—"A robot may not injure humanity or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"—and how the imperative to protect abstract humanity moved the robot Daneel Olivaw to bring about the founding of Gaia" (346-48; ch. 101).  For the continuation of Daneel's existence, and the establishment of "Galaxia" (the galaxy as mostly conscious organism), Daneel will "merge a human brain into" his own to "achieve a two-brain Gaia"  (350-52); the human he chooses is Fallom: "hermaphroditic, transductive, different"—and perhaps a new force in the galaxy (356).  See in this section, IA's Foundation's Edge and Prelude to Foundation.  Rev. Donald M. Hassler, FR, No. 98, 10.1 (Jan.-Feb. 1987): 32.  Audio book listed under Drama. 



3. FICTION, RDE, Revised 01/VII/93    Asimov, Isaac.  Prelude to Foundation.  New York: Doubleday/Foundation, 1988.  Rpt. [S. F.] Book Club, 1988 (no ISBN).  **¢+Sequel, in a sense, to IA's Robot's and Empire and the first book of the Foundation series in order of Foundation history PtF presents the early history of Hari Seldon and the adventures that helped him develop his theories of psychohistory.  Includes an "Author's Note" giving a list of IA's Robot, Foundation, and Empire books (ix-x).  See PtF for the city-planet Trantor and IA's continuing examination of the motifs of containment, inside/outside, and the City vs. the Garden.  See also for the heroic Dors Venabili (a female robot, who becomes the wife of Hari Seldon) and for R. Daneel Olivaw—who turns out to be quietly controlling Seldon's adventures, the story, and the galaxy.   Rev. Donald M. Hassler, SF&FBR Annual 1989: 174-75.  See in this section, IA's Robots of Dawn, Robots and Empire, Foundation's Edge, and Foundation and Earth. 



3. FICTION, RDE, REV. 22/VI/93         Asimov, Isaac.  Robots and Empire.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1985.  (Available in a [S. F.] Book Club Edition.)  London: Granada, 1985.  **¢+The quasi-telepathic robot Giskard convinces the robot Daneel of the existence of a "Zeroeth Law" of robotics: "'There is a law that is greater than the First Law: "A Robot may not injure humanity or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"'" (Doubleday edn. from S. F. Book Club 291; section 63).  At the end of R&E, Giskard passes on to Daneel Giskard's power to sense and influence human attitudes and emotions—much in the manner of the Mule in the original Foundation and Empire—and leaves Daneel "with a Galaxy to care for" (381-83; section 92 [ch. 19]).   See also in this section of the List IA's Caves of Steel and Naked Sun; see also, IA's Robots of Dawn (the immediate predecessor to R&E) and Prelude to Foundation.  Rev. Douglas Barbour, Foundation #35 (79-80); Robert A. Collins, FR, No. 83 (Sept. 1985): 16. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 27/VI/93; REV.        Asimov, Isaac.The Robots of Dawn.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983.  [S. F.] Book Club edition available, without ISBN, 1984.  **¢+Detective Elijah Baley tackles the murder of a humanoid robot on the planet Aurora, "the self-styled World of the Dawn, where humans and robots coexist in seemingly perfect harmony" but where a power struggle goes on to decide whether the colonizers of the universe will be humans or machines (front flap of dust cover of Book Club edn.)—and whether those humans will be from Earth or the Spacer worlds.  RoD is important for theme of containment, both literally within City (sic) walls in the "Caves of Steel" on Earth and more figuratively behind robots on the Spacer worlds.  Important also for the motif of the telepathic robot. See IA's earlier "Liar!" story in I, Robot and the later works in the Robot/Empire series.  Rev. Brian Stableford, SF&FBR #19 (Nov. 1983): 15-17. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 13/V/94       Asimov, Isaac, and Robert Silverberg.  The Positronic Man.  New York: Foundation-Doubleday, 1992.  ISBN 0-385-26342-2**¢+Expansion of IA's "The Bicentennial Man" (q.v., this section).  SENT TO SHELTON, 13/V/94



3.  FICTION, RDE, 28/VIII/97   Banks, Iain M.  Excession (sic).  1996.  London, UK: Orbit ("A Division of Little, Brown and company [UK]"), 1997.  **¢+Intellectual space opera, featuring the irruption into our galaxy, and universe, of a large "excession": something totally new, different, powerful, and culturally challenging—and a brief war between the highly civilized Culture and the energetic, farcical, and highly nasty Affront.  Relevant here, the major cast includes Minds that control and are ships, and other AI advanced far beyond human intelligence.  Usually, the ships contain great numbers of humans, who are significantly not significant members of the cast.  We have, then, the protective enclosure of humans within cybernetic environments, but most of the story is about the cybernetic Minds, not the humans.  See Banks's other Culture novels, including the collection The State of the Art. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 20/X/97      Banks, Iain M.  "The State of the Art."  1989.  Coll. The State of the Art.  London: Orbit, 1991.  **¢+A novella in IMB's Culture series.  In large part, a eutopian/dystopian, multivoiced dialog concerning life in the highly advanced Culture vs. life on Earth in 1977, with the debate deciding whether Earth will be destroyed, brought into the Culture, entirely left alone, or studied as a "control."  Features an AI ship (one of IMB's "Minds"), and a brief but important section with comments on Manhattan as a highly geometric jungle (188) and machine: "This was the soul of the machine, the ethological epicentre, the planetary ground zero of their commercial energy.  I could almost feel it, shivering down like bomb-blasted rivers of glass from these undreaming towers of dark and light invading the snow-dark sky" (190). 



3.  FICTION, DDB, 23/I/95        Bear, Greg.  Anvil of Stars.  New York: Warner Books, 1992.  S. F. Book Club edn., no ISBN**¢+Sequel to Forge of God (q.v., this section).  Self-replicating planet-killing machines have destroyed the Earth.  Humanity has been rescued by the Benefactors, members of a universal coalition who have sent 82 teenagers on a quest to destroy the civilization responsible for creating the planet-killers.  Features robotic "Moms" and the personality of the Benefactor ship, charged with preparing the children to destroy the species that created the planet-killing robots. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 18/V/95      Bear, Greg.  "Blood Music."  Analog 1983.  Coll. Tangents.  New York: Warner, 1989.  **¢+Cf. and contrast end of story with end of H. Ellison's "I Have No Mouth . . ." (cited in this section).  Ellison's hero is transformed and tortured while trapped inside a gigantic cybernetic machine.  Edward (the Narrator) and Gail have inside them communicating, hierarchically organized, exponentially reproducing biochip nanomechanisms: "They were not cruel," Edward tells us, but they take over Edward and Gail, silence and deafen them, and have them grow together like trees in a legend versified by Ovid: a "transformation" Edward calls this metamorphosis (34).  "I no longer have any clear view of what we look like.  I suspect we resemble cells—large, flat, and filamented cells, draped purposefully across most of the apartment.  The great shall mimic the small. ¦ Our intelligence fluctuates daily as we are absorbed into the minds within.  Each day our individuality declines.  We are, indeed, great clumsy dinosaurs.  Our memories have been taken over by billions of them, and our personalities have been spread though the transformed blood."  And the infection is spreading.  "I can barely begin to guess the results.  Every square inch of the planet will teem with thought.  Years from now, perhaps much sooner, they will subdue their own individuality" (35).  If Ellison's "I Have No Mouth" pushed to the limits the horrific possibilities of the modernist fear of "the superimposition of the mechanical upon the organic" (see H. Bergson under Background), then GB may have made a complementary statement for the postmodern.



3. FICTION, RDE, 21/IV/94      Bear, Greg.  Moving Mars.  1993.  Available in Bookcassette format.  Sharon Williams, reader.  Michael Page, dir.  Grand Haven, MI: Brilliance Corp., 1993.  **¢+The ability to move Mars depends upon a human/computer interface which in turn is interfaced with a nearly miraculous gadget.  In a universe whose essence is data-flow, the gadget can change the "desciptors" of particles; such changes of descriptors can annihilate time and distance, or change matter into antimatter or "mirrormatter."  The machine is taken apart, but for a while an elite group on Mars has great power. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 22/V/95 REVISION Bear, Greg.  "Tangents."  Omni 8.4 (Jan. 1986): 40 f.  Coll. Tangents.  New York: Warner, 1989.  **¢+See for electronically generated music as a way to contact the people of a five-dimensional world (four in space, one in time), and for a computer plus human imagination as a portal into that world.  (Note also a variation on the last years of A. M. Turing, with a much happier ending.)  Rev. Jerry L Parsons, SF&FBR Annual 1990: 198. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Benford, Gregory.  "Lust."  1982 copyright.  In Umbral Anthology of Science Fiction Poetry, q.v. above, under Anthologies.  **¢+"Libido, a universal," brings together a human (apparently) and an alien with "a flank not born but budded" and "circuits" where the human has dendrites.



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/II/93        bes [sic] Shahar, Eluki.  Hellflower.  New York: DAW, 1991.  **¢+See for a culture with an "anti-technology strain," a "remote transponder implant," and for Paladin, "an illegal computer 'Library'" and "brain" for a spaceship, in a novel "something akin to cyberpunk."  Rev. Tanya Gardiner-Scott, SFRA Review #202 (Dec. 1992): 31, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 18/II/96       Bethke, Bruce.  Headcrash.  New York: Aspect-Warner, [1995].  "A Time Warner Book."  ISBN 0-446-60260-4**¢+A satire on cyberpunk by the inventor of the term, including within its satiric "anatomy" (in Northrop Frye's sense) a send-up of a cyberpunk novel.  See for the motifs of surveillance, computer-takeover, the Laws of Robotics/Humanics, nasty high-tech multinational corporations, VR, cyberspace, battlemechsª, the cyberspace caper (in the manner of W. Gibson's Neuromancer [q.v. this section]), transformers and techno-morphing, virtual sex, and the superimposition of the cybernetic upon the human (including the variation of the "ProctoProd": the insertion of the cybernetic into the human in a manner grotesquely decorous in a rather Swiftian satire).  Also includes some serviceable Bad Hemingway and a highly useful attack on the plausibility of the trope of "Lethal Feedback" literally burning out the brains of someone who runs into serious electronic countermeasures in cyberspace: If I have tapped into a system that used high voltages (which won't happen) and I hadn't the foresight to install a surge protector or fuse on my system, still, ". . . the molecule-sized gates on the IC chips and the hair-fine wiring on the PC boards instantly act like thousands of tiny fuses, melting down into harmless slag and breaking the circuit long before my first neuron gets even a little warm" (258).    CAUTIONS: (1) Someone may come up with electronic countermeasures in cyberspace that send back data that harm one's brain (possibly rapid bursts of political rhetoric).  (2) Accusing satirists of either bad taste or loose plotting is like accusing a Marine platoon of violence, but Headcrash is not for children or the fastidious. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 16/II/95       Bishop, Michael.  "The Bob Dylan Tambourine Software & Satori Support Services Consortium, Ltd." Interzone #12 (1985).  The Norton Book of Science Fiction: North American Science Fiction, 1960-1990.  Ursula K. Le Guin and Brian Attebery, eds.  New York: Norton, 1993.  **¢+Story related to earlier mechanical and cybernetic god stories, except here, God is in the program, the software.  In the world of the story, the ". . . Spiritual Revolution is comin' at us in the long shadow of the Computer Revolution," and a Bob Dylan avatar is the entrepreneurial guru of "a technology that's made the rudiments of religion user-friendly" and has made computer technology and addition to faith as "viable avenues to immortality."  In the world Dylan brings, "We'll pray with our fingers on the keyboards of our Apples and IBMs.  We'll go into our machines to go into ourselves, and it's the inside—not this [Brooks Brothers] suit or these [Gucci] shoes that God see's.  My programs . . . mediate between the pilgrim user and our truest concepts of Deity.  Each one of us is a church, and we worship alone at our reflexive response altars" (Norton 622-25).  The motto of the new age might be, "Nobody ought to hafta pirate God-consciousness" (626). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 29/X/94      Blaylock, James.  Lord Kelvin's Machine.  London: Grafton, 1993.  **¢+"Steampunk" novel, featuring a machine by a fictionalized Lor Kelvin capable of "cancelling" the magnetic field of the Earth, plus "use as the motive power for time travel (rev. Dave Langford, Foundation #60 [Spring 1994]:102-04, whom we quote and depend upon for our citation). 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Blish, James, adapter.  "The Changeling."  In Star Trek 7.  New York: Bantam, 1972.  **¢+A fictionalization of the Star Trek episode.  See below: Star Trek, under Stage, Film, and Television Drama.



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Blish, James, adapter.  "The Doomsday Machine."  In Star Trek 3.  New York: Bantam, 1969.  **¢+Fictionalization of the Star Trek episode.  See below: Star Trek, under Stage, Film, and Television Drama.



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Blish, James, adapter.  "The Ultimate Computer."  In Star Trek 9.  New York: Bantam, 1973.  **¢+Fictionalization of Star Trek episode: see below: Star Trek, under Stage, Film, and Television Drama.



3.  FICTION, RDE, 13/X/96, 9/I/05       Boucher, Anthony.  "The Quest for St. Aquin."  New Tales of Space and Time.  Raymond J. Healy, ed.  New York: Holt, 1951.  Coll. The Compleat Boucher: The Complete Short Science Fiction and Fantasy of Anthony Boucher.  Ed. James A. Mann.  Framingham, MA: NESFA P, 1999.  Frequently rpt. including The Science Fiction Hall of Fame.  Vol. 1.  Robert Silverberg, ed.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971.  **¢+In a postholocaust world, "ruled by the Technarchy," a pope "commissions one Thomas to set one on a quest for the saint of the title, which he does riding a 'robass' (a robotic ass)."  As in the Biblical story of Balaam, the ass talks, and "An extended dialogue between Thomas and the robass raises the issue of means and ends: why not tell the lie that Aquin has been found if that results in greater belief?  When Thomas finally locates the body of the saint, it turns out to be a robot."  Summary from David Seed, "Recycling the Texts of the Culture: Walter M. Miller's A Canticle for Leibowitz, Extrapolation 37.3 (Fall 1996): 266.  Kingsley Amis notes that "Since the robot's brain is by definition perfectly logical, its embracing of Roman Catholicism is understood as inaugurating a new ecclesiastical era" (K. Amis, New Maps of Hell, q.v. under LitCrit, 82; Amis contrasts this story with I. Asimov's "Reason" [q.v., this section]). 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Bourne, John.  Computer Takes All.  London: Cassell, 1967.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as "Computer dystopia."




3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Bradbury, Ray.  "The Long Years."  Maclean's (Canada), 15 Sept. 1948.  Coll. The Martian Chronicles.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1950.  Frequently rpt.  **¢+



3. FICTION, RDE, 27/III/93       ADD TO BRADBURY, RAY, "THE WORLD THE CHILDREN MADE": Audiotape of radio version listed under Drama, under RB's name. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/01      Brown, Eric.  "Ferryman."  In New Worlds vol. 64, q.v. under Anthologies.  **¢+Resurrection and becoming "effectively immortal" with the aid of "alien nanomeks," very small mechanisms (55); the formerly dead humans are "beamed" from Terran stations to alien ships in geosynchronous orbits and transported to an alien planet in ships in "trans-c mode," i.e., faster than light (56). 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Calisher, Hortense.  Mysteries of Motion.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983.  **¢+The lives of seven space colonists as they travel to a habitat named "Island US."  Rev. Catherine L. McClenahan, FR #67 (May 1984): 27, our source for this entry. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 18/IV/00     Card, Orson Scott.  Ender's Game.  New York: Tor, 1985.  **¢+According to Anatomy of Wonder 4, ENTRY 4-92, EG is an expansion of 1978 novelette; it is also the first of the Ender's series, followed by Speaker for the Dead (1986) and Xenocide (1991).  See for training of a boy to become the perfect commander against the "Bugger" enemy, insectoid enemies attacking our the solar system (cf. R. A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers).  The training involves VR, in a simulation that proves only too real, and deadly—apparently a total xenocide: the extermination of an alien species. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/01      Cadigan, Pat.  "Emperor's New Reality, The."  In New Worlds vol. 64, q.v. under Anthologies.  **¢+Variation on "The Emperor's New Clothes" (1837) by Hans Christian Andersen.  In PC's version, the emperor's problem is a desire for ever-more-real Artificial Realityª for all; two public-spirited citizens introduce him to "completely transparent reality" (21).  The suit, helmet, and other technological paraphernalia giving "Authentic Artificial Realityª" don't exist, leaving the emperor in contact with mere, small "r" no "ª" reality (33).  



3. FICTION, RDE, 08/II/93        Card, Orson Scott.  The Memory of Earth.  (Homecoming: Volume 1.)   New York: TOR, 1992.  **¢+Post-nuclear-holocaust story featuring a failing computer, first installment of a 5-novel series.  See for "the Oversoul, a computer" capable of accessing "the minds of humans and influencing humans indirectly," toward peace, and considered a god by the women, who rule the city of the novel.  Rev. Karen Hellekson, SFRA Review #198 (June 1992): 53-54, our source for this entry and whom we quote.  Cf. and contrast H. Ellison's "Asleep: With Still Hands," and E. M. Forster's "The Machine Stops. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 02/VIII/99   Carlyle, Thomas.  Sartor Resartus.  Composed ca. 1831.  Initial magazine serialization Fraser's Magazine Nov. 1833-August 1834, Nos. 47-56, except Jan. and May.  First book  publication, Boston, 1835; first British edn. 1838.  Ed. and with Introd. by Clark S. Northup.  New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1921 (our source for biblio. data, xxxii).  **¢+Not SF, but what SR is is harder to say, beyond a fictional autobiography, satire in the mode of Jonathan Swift's A Tale of a Tub, and philosophy in the Transcendental mode.  Relevant here is the protagonist Teufelsdrškh in the depths of alienation and despair, toward the end of ch. 7, "The Everlasting No."  In this very bad time, Teufelsdrškh sees himself as the only real person in a society of automata: "Now when I look back, it was a strange isolation I then lived in.  The men and women around me . . . were but Figures; I had, practically, forgotten that they were not merely automatic" (151).  And as the microcosm is mechanized, so the macrocosm: "To me the Universe was all void of Life, of Purpose, of Volition, even of Hostility: it was one huge, dead, immeasurable Steam-engine, rolling on, in its dead indifference, to grind me limb from limb.  O the vast, gloomy, solitary Golgotha, and Mill of Death!"  Amidst this mechanism, Teufelsdrškh feels "savage also, as the tiger in his jungle," and "it seemed as if the Heavens and the Earth were but boundless jaws of a devouring monster, wherein I, palpitating, waited to be devoured"—combining mechanism and monsters, and also the demonic (152-53). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/01      Charnock, Graham.  "Night on Bare Mountain, A."  In New Worlds vol. 64, q.v. under Anthologies.  **¢+A strongly po-mo cyberpunk story about what could have been the end of the world—possibly from a nanovirus (305)—but isn't, for most people.  The "po-mo" part of our "po-mo cyberpunk" phrase refers to the high degree of foregrounded, highly conscious intertextuality of this story, allusions to aspects of popular culture, mostly ours.  The cyberpunk, decaying setting includes a device called "Thumb": an augmented human thumb or prosthetic on the hand of the female lead that is gendered ("he), technologically powerful, and intelligent (298 f.).  In a Fantasy or Horror world, this AI Thumb would be a variety of Magic Helper, or body part that had taken on an identity of its own.  In the world of this "Bare Mountain," we accept on faith that some sort of nanotechnology gives Thumb "his" powers. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 13/V/94       Cherryh, C. J. (Carolyn Janice Cherry). 

Heavy Time.  New York: Warner Books, 1991.  S. B. Book Club; no ISBN**¢+Set in Merchanters' universe of CJC's earlier Downbelow Station, Rimrunners (sic), and Cyteen books.  See for corporate control associated with "Mama."  SENT TO SHELTON, 13/V/94 



3. FICTION, RDE, 12/V/94       Cherryh, C. J. (Carolyn Janice Cherry).  Cyteen series: Cyteen, Cyteen II (Warner Books, 1988), Cyteen III (Warner Books, 1988).  **¢+NEEDS TO BE DONE.



3. FICTION, RDE, 30/VII/93     Cherryh, C. J.  (Carolyn Janice Cherry).  Hellburner.  New York: Warner, 1992.  **¢+According to the dustjacket, set generally in the universe of Heavy Time, Cyteen, and Downbelow Station (see above); set specifically in highly mechanized environments within military space installations.  Note well the human/machine interface in the simulators and on the Hellburner fighter-craft itself, including a near-mystic moment when a pilot's "body-sense was expanded into the ship" (333).  Note also tape-teaching, which may or may not be a form of brainwashing and may or may not be a way of recording and reproducing the reactions of a virtuoso; cf. and contrast J. Haldeman's All My Sins Remembered, Forever War, and related entries, and the tapes used for automation in K. Vonnegut's Player Piano—all cited in this section. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 06/I/00        Clarke, Arthur C.  1982.  2010: Odyssey Two.  New York: Ballantine, 1984.  **¢+ Sequel to 2001: A Space Odyssey and source of the film 2010, q.v. this section and under Drama.  See for the interactions between SAL 9000 and Dr. Chandra—to give the simplified form of his name—"Professor of Computer Science at the University of Illinois, Urbana," in ch. 3, and his relations to HAL, introduced in ch. 3 and developed later in the book.  Chandra's assertion of ethical responsibility to Hal (a name by this stage of the narrative) is met with, "Hell, Chandra—he's only a machine!", to which Chandra responds "So are we all, Dr. Brailovsky" (267; ch. 45).  Note also the title of chapter 42 and line in the novel, "The Ghost in the Machine": most directly as a reference to a manifestation of an entity that can identify itself with "I WAS DAVID BOWMAN" (238; ch. 41).  Cf. and contrast Helen, a neural network AI that may also hail from Urbana-Champaign and the U. of Illinois, in R. Powers's Galatea 2.2, listed this section.



3. FICTION, RDE, 11/V/94, 30/XII/94; TW, 13/I/95       Clarke, Arthur C. and Gentry Lee.  Rama Revealed: The Ultimate Encounter.  New York: Bantam-Spectra, 1994.  <ISBN 0-553-09536-6>.  **¢+The fourth book of the Rama, claiming on the front-cover note to be the conclusion to the series.  In RR, not all is well on Rama III as it journies toward the Node.  Focuses on two elements: the human capacity for creating dystopia and the existence of some sort of supreme force in the universe (a mystical element frequent in ACC's work from Against the Fall of Night [1948] through Childhood's End [1953] and into his most recent writing).  Cf. Kim Stanley Robinson's Green Mars [1994 {q.v.—Should we list GM?}].  Note, as always in the Rama series, containment of humans and other organisms within the <<mechanized>> (mechanical, cybernetic, electronic) environment of "the vast Raman ark," tiny robot helpers, a "labyrinthian underground" reached via "a ghostly subway," the octospiders as high-tech "arachnidlike creatures," and a movement outward in a spacecraft toward "a powerful force" that is "summoning the survivors to a final judgment" (quoting cover notes on front and back flyleafs).  Note very well the elegant handling of the language of the octospiders.  In addition to the other Rama works, cf. and contrast Clarke's City and the Stars and 2001 (cited in this sections).  Rev. Fred Runk, SFRA Review #210 (March/April 1994): 60-61. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 11/I/02        Clute, John.  Appleseed.  London: Orbit Books-Little, Brown, 2001.  New York: Tor Books, 2002 (sic: the "2001" for the first US edn. cited on the copyright page is an error).  **¢+Important work of po-mo space opera that breaks down categories of human/machine, organic/inorganic—etc.  The AI ship Tile Dance is described as mammalian, and he/she/it is a character in the story, as are the other "Made Minds," JC's formulation for AI machines.  Cf. HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey (this section and under Drama) and the Minds of Iain M. Bank's fiction (see above).  Appleseed is vigorously intertextual and invites comparison and contrast with works as varied as S. R. Delany's Stars in My Pocket [É] (q.v. below) to Christopher Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great (publ. 1590). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 10/XI/01     Cole, Robert William.  The Struggle for Empire: A Story of the Year 2236.  London: Elliot Stock, 1908.  **¢+Cited in Sargent and mentioned with comments by T. Corson (see under Background).  Sargent has it a utopia showing the "Triumph of Anglo-Saxons and science," with a two-tier social structure of intellectuals and menials.  Corson stresses technology, esp. military technology. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Cook, Glen.  Passage at Arms.  New York: Popular Library, 1985.  **¢+See for weaponry and handling of "one small group of men confined in close quarters" in the manner of Das Boot (The Boat [1981]).  Rev. FR, #79, p. 13, our source for this entry and whom we quote.



3. FICTION, RDE, 05/V/93       Crichton, Michael.  Jurassic Park.  New York: Knopf, 1990.  New York: Ballantine-Random, 1991.  **¢+A homage of sorts to the 1950s "creature-feature" film and the SF/disaster movies described and analyzed by S. Sontag in "The Imagination of Disaster" (q.v. under Film Criticism).  Relevant here as a continuation of MC's study of systems started in Andromeda Strain (q.v., along with P. S. Alterman on "Neuron and Junction," cited under Literary Criticism).  Also relevant for the handling of the relationships among Control (the highly coputerized control room for Jurassic Park), The Park itself, and the dinosaurs; the control assumed by the designers of the park is dangerously illusory, an illusion exploded repeatedly by references to Chaos Theory, with the social relevance for Chaos Theory as a paradigm shift away the classic "scientific world view" re-iterated (sic) several times. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Crichton, Michael.  Sphere.  New York: Knopf, 1987.  **¢+Features an underwater habitat apparently seized by a murderous alien being who then proceeds to kill or otherwise endanger the dwindling number of remaining inhabitants.  Actually the alien sphere has given some of the human characters the power to literally realize their desires.  See for the return to the oceans depths as a place to isolate characters (cf. The Abyss, Deepstar Six, and Leviathan), and also for combining human desires with a kind of mechanism (cf. Forbidden Planet); titles listed are films cited under Drama.  Rev. Stefan Dziemianowicz, SFRA Newsletter #153 [Nov./Dec. 1987]: 26-27.  See under Drama the 1998 film. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 06/III/00      Crichton, Michael.  Timeline.  New York: Random House, 1999.  Available in audio cassettes, both abridged (with MC's approval) and unabridged, and audio CD (abridged).  **¢+A quantum-mechanical time-machine, of sorts, transports people to a parallel universe of Europe's high middle ages (France during the Hundred Years' War).   "Time-travelers" place their bodies inside machines in our universe, where those bodies are destroyed, to be instantaneously re-transcribed in the parallel universe, without benefit of a machine.  Note temporary confinement inside a machine in our world, and faith required that one's lasered bones, so to speak, will rise again in another world.  Note also that Medieval World is that of recent scholarship: a time/place sophisticated in many ways, including technologically, not only in military hardware but also architecturally, and in engineering a mill. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Dagmar, Peter.  Sands of Time.  London: Brown, Watson, 1963.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as a computer-rule story, and the revolt against such rule. 




3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES          DeLillo, Don.  White Noise.  1985.  New York: Penguin Group, 1986.  **¢+An "Airborn Toxic Event" disturbs a near-future American family in a work that relates technology to cancer, and deals somewhat with the theme of TV-takeover. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 25/I/96        ADD TO DICK, "SECOND VARIETY": See under Drama, Screamers,  **¢+



3.  FICTION, RDE, 21/XII/03    Dick, Philip K.  "Impostor."**¢+ADD: See under Drama for 2002 film.  



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Domatilla, John.  The Last Crime.  New York: Atheneum, 1981.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as a "Computer dystopia."



3.  FICTION, RDE, 16/II/95       Dorsey, Candas Jane.  "(Learning About) Machine Sex."  Machine Sex and Other Stories.  XXXXXX: Tesseract (Porcepic) Books, 1988.  The Norton Book of Science Fiction: North American Science Fiction, 1960-1990.  Ursula K. Le Guin and Brian Attebery, ed.  New York: Norton, 1993.  **¢+Cyberpunkish story of how Angel, the female hero, develops the computer program Machine Sex.  Set in  a world that "Sells the thought of pleasure as a commodity" (Norton 760), with "a world market hungry for the kind of glossy degradation Machine Sex could give them" (756).  Preeminently set in a world in which men "don't care who they fuck," or what, so "Why not the computer in the den?  Or the office system at lunch hour" (757-58).  Gay male suggests that people want and deserve love (758), and the story includes brief meditations on love, sex, orgasm, politics, power, and the possibility that almost all heterosex is machine sex already.  Cf. and contrast F. Pohl's "Day Million" (also anthologized in Norton). 


3. FICTION, RDE, 27/VI/94      Dowling, Terry.  "Colouring the Captains."  In Rynosseros, q.v. under Anthologies and Collections.  **¢+The fictive audience are "Cold People" in cryogenic storage; the fictive Narrator is an AI "belltree."  See for motifs of original Australians' Dreamtime and oracles bracketed with AI and "Artificial Life," general surveillance by machines, surveillance and conditioning by AI machines in what sounds like a prison-plus (called "the Madhouse"), and "the Living Towers at Fosti" as "a brave attempt to bridge the gap between architectural form and organic life" (26).  Note also the fusion of AI and "organic life" in the Narrator: "They bonded me to two fading cryogenic personalities like yourselves, James and Bymer, two old Cold People whose bodies were spoiling and who had paid handsomely to have their matrices grafted out into biotectic life, their final chance . . . for any kind of life[,] considering" (4).  Significantly, "James had been a semiologist . . .; Bymer was the colour symbologist who had once advised the Ab'O biotects on the inlay designs for the Living Towers at Fosti" (5)—where "Ab'O" is a neutral term for "Aborigines."



3. FICTION, RDE, 27/VI/94      Dowling, Terry.  "The Robot Is Running Away From the Trees."  In Rynosseros, q.v. under Anthologies and Collections.  **¢+See for an AI robot and the question of whether it is true life.  Note talk of "noosphere" and the "concept of the haldanes," juxtaposed with a negative reference to Ned Ludd and the Luddites (59).  Unless "haldanes" is a term in Australian English, the allusion would be to John Scott Haldane (1860-1936) and/or his son J[ohn]. B[urdon]. S[anderson]. Haldane (1892-1964): scientists, evolutionary theorists, and philosophers; "noosphere" is an idea of the theologian Pierre Teilhard De Chardin, here described as "the ancient concept of the noosphere, of a mantle of life-energy surrounding the Earth, fed by dead souls, discorporated entities" (59)—which the robot, dying in such a way as to save to lives of trees, may add to (thereby proving "he" was alive). 



3. FICTION, RDE, 27/VI/94      Dowling, Terry.  "Spinners."  In Rynosseros, q.v. under Anthologies and Collections.  **¢+See for an "old clockmaker" (100) who creates AI "belltrees" named Khoumy, Ankh, Daystar, and Tiresias (102)—to combine several mythologies.  See also for AI bracketed with windmills, and "A stylized windmill, a bladed sun" as a "Fitting symbol for the land" of nontribal Australians (104). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 21&22/IV/01           Dunn, J. R.  Full Tide of Night.  New York: Avon, 1998.  **¢+Fairly near-future S.F. story using some elements of John Webster's Tragedy of Blood, The Duchess of Malfi (first staged 1613 or 1614), with Julia Amalfi—refugee from Earth and nearly literal mother of her people—getting the line "I am the Dame of Midgard still" (294; ch. 17).  Significant here: Cariola, serving-woman unto Webster's Duchess, becomes in FTN an AI with a strong personality; an agenda; capacity for rebellion, guilt and feelings generally; and arguably as much gender and as many neuroses as HAL 9000, whose "intellectual breakdown" has been chronicled in the world of FTN in "a notable drama [É,] Hal 9000, His Tragical Historie, supposedly based on an incident during the first space age" (151; ch. 10).  Note also (cybernetic?) augmentation of the body of Julia Amalfi, "controlled parthenogenesis" and in vitro gestation of humans, human/computer voice-interface, and fanatics paralleled to people taken over by computer programs (passim).  The fanatical rank-and-file of the Rigorists are called "monads," and are held in contempt by two leading "alpha males"; compare monads with humans as RISTs in N. Stephenson's Cryptonomicon (q.v., this section): 354 f. in 1999 Perennial edn. ("Phreaking" chapter).  Also note the Erinye (Greek: Furies), nicely described by Michael Levy as "an implacably hostile race of once-human computer entities who may well have wiped out or converted to their own kind all life," or all human life, "on Earth" ("The Duchess of Malfi Revived: J. R. Dunn's Science Fiction Revenge Tragedy" [paper at 2001 conference of the International Assoc. for the Fantastic in the Arts, forthcoming in the Selected Proceedings of the conference).  Finally, in Duchess, the Duchess is succeeded by a son; in FTN that structural/plot position is taken by Victoria, Julia's clone-, or better, clade-daughter produced "utilizing the large stock of natal machinery taken off the ship" that brought Julia Amalfi to Midgard (280-81, ch. 17; 311, ch. 18). 



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/II/93        Easton, Thomas A. Woodsman.  New York: Ace, 1992.  **¢+Genetic engineers vs. "Machine-worshipping Engineers" who want to return to the bad old days and ways "of hydrocarbon smog and dung-free streets."  Rev. David Mead (very negatively) SFRA Review #201 (Nov. 1992): 43-44. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 10/II/93        Effinger, George Alec.  The Bird of Time, 3.281: ADD Rev. Richard D. Erlich, FR #92, 9.6 (June 1986): 20. 



3.  FICTION, Maly, 02/VII/02; RDE, 15/VIII/02  Egan, Greg.  Diaspora.  London: Millenium-Orion, 1997.  **+ Diaspora contains a universe comprised of software beings in human-shaped hardware policed by virtual computers.  Blackford criticizes Egan for a lack of critical analysis on these moral issues.  Beings can be uploaded, copied, modified or deleted.  Rev. Russell Blackford, Science Fiction: A Review of Speculative Literature #40, 14.2 (1997): 46-50.  See below, GE's Permutation City and P. F. Hamilton's Mindstar Rising; see also in this section John Sladek's 1970 novel, The MŸller-Fokker Effect and the works cross-listed there. 



3.  FICTION,  Maly, 02/VII/02   Egan, Greg.  Permutation City.  New York: Harper Mass Market Paperbacks, 1995.  **+From  Book Description on "The good news is that you have just awakened into Eternal Life.  You are going to live forever.  [É] The bad news is that you are a scrap of electronic code.  The world you see around you, the you that is seeing it, has been digitized, scanned, and downloaded into a virtual reality program.  You are a Copy that knows it is a copy."  The way out for this self-conscious copy is that it has the legal "option of terminating itself, and waking up  to normal flesh-and-blood life again. [É] The bad news is that it doesn't work. [É]  The real you [É] wants to keep you here forever."  Discussed in R. Farnell's "Attempting Immortality" article, q.v. under Literary Criticism.  For other works using these motifs, see citation for GE's Diaspora, and see in Keyword Index "digitalized person" and "containment." 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/VIII/00   Ellison, Harlan.  "Laugh Track."  1984.  The Voice From the Edge, Vol 1: I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream.  Dove Audio, 1999.  "Produced and Distributed by NewStar Media, Inc." of Los Angeles.  **¢+"LT" is significant in the audio-book form by its juxtaposition as side 2 of a series in which HE's 1967 "I Have No Mouth" (q.v. above) is side 1.  If "I Have No Mouth" is extreme tragic horror, bettering Edgar Allen Poe, "Laugh Track" deals with a similar premise, but as satiric comedy.  In "I Have No Mouth," the protagonist-narrator and four other humans are trapped in the belly of AM, the computer-monster; in "Laugh Track," the narrator's beloved dead aunt is trapped as a laugh on a laugh track inside a quasi-magic "black box" of a shady TV sound engineer.  We won't ruin the joke, so we'll just say she adjusts to her electronic environment. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/XI/98     Ellison, Harlan, and A. E. Van Vogt.  "The Human Operators."  © 1970 by authors.  F&SF Jan. 1971.  Coll. HE, Robert Bloch, et al., Partners in Wonder.  New York: Walker and Company, 1971.  New York: Avon, 1972.  New York: Pyramid, 1975. reports a 1983 edn.  Rpt. Best Science Fiction Stories of the Year (1971).  Lester del Rey, ed.  New York: Dutton, 1972.  Audiocassette.  Read by HE.  Brilliance Corp., 1997.  ("Stellar Audio Books," with R. Bradbury's "Kaleidoscope.")  **¢+A three-character novelette combining computer take-over, coming-of-age, rebelling against the Machine motifs, working out to a horror story with a romantic-comic ending.  The human operators are adolescents, a boy and a girl.  The boy is the protagonist-narrator, who serves "Ship," as his father before him did, doing maintenance requiring a human being.  Ship turns out to be Starfighter 31, a former warship that killed its crew (save for one) and became a "slave-ship";it is run by what we'd call AI and is in the tradition of HAL 9000 in 2001: A Space Odyssey (q.v., under Drama).  The girl appears to be brought over by Starfighter 88 to mate with the boy and breed their replacements.  (Boys are raised by boys and men, girls by women; when the offspring are 14, the parents are killed by the ship.)  The girl rebelled earlier and had won control of Starfighter 88; the boy wins against Ship, his home and ruler.  Together the human operators find a planet and will live there, while Starship 31 rusts.  See in this section  J. Williamson's "Jamboree," and F. Herbert's Destination: Void and the Herbert and Bill Ransom sequel, The Jesus Incident. 



3.  FICTION, Maly,  02/VII/02; RDE, 15/VIII/02 Fabi, Mark.  Wyrm.  New York: Bantam Spectra, 1997.  **+  AI plot that "might be best described as 'the thing that's gotten loose on the Net.'"  Protagonist is a post-cyberpunk, "regular" guy.  The wyrm is a spontaneously evolving virus on the Net that both destroys and improves computer programs; see for VR interfacing.  Rev. Michael Levy, The New York Review of Science Fiction  #110, 10.2 (October 1997): 14-15, our source here and whom we quote.



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Foster, M. A.  Owl Time.  New York: DAW Collectors' Book No. 612, 1985.  **¢+Collection in which "Each of the stories presents a character who escapes from or is in the process of escaping from a society in which de-humanizing technology dominates the individual" (FR, 79, p. 13).



3. FICTION, RDE, 12/V/94, 13/VIII/96  Gawron, Jean Mark.  Dream of Glass.  New York: Harcourt, 1993. ISBN 0-15-126569-0 **¢+An important information society, fairly near-future dystopia, which includes first contact with an <<unaliened>> very high-tech alien craft.  Back cover identifies JMG as "a Ph.D. in computational linguistics," working in AI at SRI International in San Francisco, and the book itself seems highly sophisticated about AI (and philosophy and literature).  Front cover says DoG presents a "world where information is God and artificial intelligences have joined ranks with misfit hackers to undermine a fascist state"—metaphorically true on godlike information—the Highest Good for the state—more literally true than usual in use of the word "fascist" (quotes Mussolini).  "Dream of Glass is an adventure in cyberspace . . . that pursues the timeless question of what an individual is."  Imagery includes cyberspace, the superimposition of the cybernetic and electronic upon the human, and AI conjugation (explicitly compared to the simplest sort of sex: bacterial exchange of DNA).  See also for a small robot "homunculus" controlled by an AI and then (temporarily) embodying an AI, a human personality copied by an AI—and certainly an AI/human interface if not AI control. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 2/XII/01, 26/XII/01  Gibson, William.  All Tomorrow's Parties.  New York: Putnam, 1999.  New York: Ace, 2000.  **¢+Sequel to Idoru and to Virtual Light (see below, this section), still important for students of the postmodern and posthuman (see Ace ch. 39, "Panopticon," and p. 193 [ch, 47] on entropic visions in cyberspace).  There is about to be a great change, comparable to the one in 1911, which we assume was the one into the definitely modern world.  Finding and using the nodes in the tech-world's data indicating that change is central to the plot, as is Rei Toei: the idoru, Colin Laney: who can perceive the nodes in the data, and Silencio: a boy fascinated by watches and data-flow.  Note (1) that the cyberspace of WG's "Sprawl" series—Neuromancer et al. (q.v.)—or even in Idoru has been replaced by more mundane movement through the data of DatAmerica; (2) that ATP incorporates something of a Daoist worldview; and (3) that the villain of the piece is Cody Harwood, "the PR [Public Relations] genius, who'd inherited Harwood Levine, the most powerful PR firm in the world" (15; ch. 3).  See also for literal clockworks in watches, continuing interest in nanotechnology, and various interesting gadgets, including "God's Little Toy": a small, remotely controlled balloon camera-platform—"silver balloon.  Disembodied eye" (34; ch. 7). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 31/XII/97, 2/XII/01  Gibson, William.  Idoru.  New York: Putnam, 1996. New York: Berkley, 1997.  Also available in audio cassette.  **¢+An idoru is a VR celebrity personality that the rock star Rez wants to marry.  See this novel for a Gibsonian high-tech, cyberpunk world like Virtual Light in tone—featuring media saturation and very wide-scale surveillance made possible by searching for information in cyberspace.  Note convergence of the organic and mostly cybernetic high-tech as a central motif: from a personal computer's system soft-ware described as "worn and spectacularly organic" (Berkley edn. 44), to the nanotech buildings of a rebuilt Tokyo whose "apparent texture" is "a stream-lined organicism," compared to H. R. "Giger's paintings of New York," at least in WG's future world (108).  Most central is the possibility that the idoru—a construct of pure information—may be literally incarnated through nanotechnology.  Note also the cybernetic character Zona Rosa, who turns out to be the cyberspace presentation persona of a sick and deformed young woman who "has lived for the past five years in almost complete denial of her physical self" (376); cf. and contrast A. McCaffrey's Ship Who Sang, and K. O'Donnell's Mayflies, cited in this section.  The issue of humans and our bodies is raised in the Neuromancer series, and in in Idoru we have a young woman who wants to be a virtual character, and an idoru who may want flesh.  Students of cyberspace as a virtual place should consider what must be added to the data of Rez's life to make Rez real to Colin Laney, a very proficient, drug-enhanced student of cyberspace: to the corporate data must be added the information generated by the fans of the Lo/Rez group, plus "a third level of information," Rei Toei, the idoru, so dense in information that her "dreams" are rock videos (312-13 and f.).  See in this section, WG's Virtual Light: VL and Idoru can be read as prequels to All Tomorrow's Parties, a definite sequel to the action of Idoru. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 00/XII/00    Gibson, William.  "New Rose Hotel."  Omni July 1984.  Coll. Burning Chrome.  New York: Arbor House, 1986.  New York: Ace, 1987.  **¢+See for zaibatsu(s)—multinational corporations—as Earth's "dominant form of intelligence," with information for blood: "Corporation as life form" (107); and for the defection of a scientist as "a complicated business, intricate as the brass gears and sliding mirrors of Victorian stage magic" (110), "the oiled play of Victorian clockwork."  "NRH" has been made into a movie, q.v. under Drama. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 10/XI/93, 29/X/94, 26/XII/01            Gibson, William.  Virtual Light.  New York: Spectra-Bantam, 1993.  ISBN 0-553-07499-7**¢+Cyberpunk novel, but gentler than Gibson's Neuromancer series (q.v. above), set in a near-future California, mostly around Los Angeles and San Francisco.  Plot revolves around the murder of a courier from whom a major character has casually stolen a pair of what she thinks are sunglasses.  The stolen article—a kind of high-tech Maltese Falcon—turns out to be "Virtual Light" glasses loaded with highly confidential data about plans to make over San Francisco via nanotechnology (see 129-31 for VL, ch. 15; also see Acknowledgments).  Note typically Gibsonian high-tech texture, and the importance of computer hackers at key points in the plot.  Rev. Gwyneth Jones, Foundation #60 (Spring 1994): 104-08. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 14/II/95       Gotlieb, Phyllis.  "Tauf Aleph."  More Wandering Stars.  New York: Doubleday, 1981.  The Norton Book of Science Fiction: North American Science Fiction, 1960-1990.  Ursula K. Le Guin and Brian Attebery, ed.  New York: Norton, 1993.  **¢+The last Jew in the universe dies, but is succeeded by a new Jewish people of alien converts.  Central to the story is the robot mining-machine O/G5/842, who becomes known as Og ha-Golem: Og, a very large Biblical king; Golem, the artificial servant.  Since the proto-Jews of the story are rather primitive (like the first Habiru—Hebrews—from a civilized point of view), Og the Golem must be careful that he is not worshipped as a mechanical god or messiah.  Although an obsolete machine, Og becomes an effective teacher, theologian, minister—a good rabbi—helping the last human Jew to die well and become a kind of Abraham to the new species of Jews. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 10/XI/01     Graham, P[eter] Anderson.  The Collapse of Homo Sapiens.  London: Putnam, 1923.  **¢+Cited as dystopian fiction by Sargent; T. Corson (see under Background) notes "stealing of atomic secrets" by Africans and Asians and their "bombing the Anglo-Saxons back to the Stone Age."  Assuming Corson and the fact-checkers of The Nation didn't err, see for an early reference to atomic warfare; see elsewhere in this section P. F. Nowlan's "Airlords of Han" and J. H. Sedberry's Under the Flag of the Cross. 



3. FICTION, Carol Stevens/Rich Erlich, 2/I/93   Grant, Richard.  Through the Heart .  New York: Bantam. 1992.  **¢+See for "the Oasis," a very large land vehicle that is like a cruise ship sailing (so to speak) an American heartland after an ecological disaster.  See also for brief references to "the Province of Industry, where the population may all live in "big underground places": "Like huge tunnels or something" (260-61), and for the "Penitents" of "the Bright Land"—repenting for past technophilia and the priesthood of scientists (303-332; see also 373-75).  Rev. Carol Stevens, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.  Possible series: see GR's other works. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Haldeman, Joe.  Worlds Apart.  New York: Viking, 1983.  **¢+Set aboard the orbiting satellite "New New York" after World War III.  Rev. Patrick McGuire, FR #67 (May 1984): 32, our source for this entry. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 28/XII/99    Haldeman, Joe.  Forever Free.  New York: Ace,1999.  **¢+Sequel to The Forever War.  Includes a couple of fighting suits but JH's interests in FF lie elsewhere than the human/machine interface. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/01      Haldeman, Joe.  Forever Peace, The.  New York: Ace, 1997.  **¢+See for "soldierboy technology"—a kind of waldo-operated fighting suit in telepathic link with the rest of one's squad; "nanoforges," US-government-controlled devices capable of making just about anything from basic raw materials (41 and passim); and machine-mediated telepathy and empathy (for a psi motif) that can yield, if maintained long enough, "humanized" people: pacifists (166-67).  "[T]he soldierboy, or Remote Infantry Combat Unit: a huge suit of armor with a ghost in it," capable of inflicting great destruction and superior to robots (10-11); cf. fighting suits in JH's Forever War and R. A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers (see below, this section).  Note also afto-aspro in P. F. Hamilton and G. Joyce's "The White Stuff": effectively nanoforges, but controlled by poor people.  Note that pacifistic  Homo sapiens pacificans will replace Homo sapiens sapiens—which is a good thing—but that JH sees both groups as subspecies: pacificans are not our kind of human (325-26). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 12/X/95      Hambly, Barbara.  Star Wars: Children of the Jedi.  New York: Bantam (etc.), 1995.  **¢+Relevant here: a very young Jedi on the Dark Side using the Force and a brain implant to control "'droids and mechanicals" who attempts to control an automated, AI "battle moon" spacecraft; a very humanoid robot that was made by having the personality of a human being transferred into it; and a Jedi Master putting her ÇspiritÈ into a gunnery computer until she transfers into the body of a human woman.  Note that the battle moon—another great Imperial death machine—becomes a temporary home for numerous species controlled by "The Will": an AI that rules this "metal microcosm."  SW:CJ, then, offers strong motifs of Çthe ghost in the machineÈ and organic sentients trapped inside a huge cybernetic mechanism.  Cf. and contrast "spirit" transfer in the film Metropolis and the generation-starship motif in R. A. Heinlein's "Universe" and similar works (listed under Film and Fiction respectively).  For audio version, see under title under Drama.  (For electronic library searches for the book and tape, try first the subtitle, Children of the Jedi.) 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 13/IX/98     Hamilton, Peter F.  Mindstar Rising.  1993.  New York: Tor, 1996.  **¢+First book of the Mindstar "trilogy of near-future thrillers" (backcover blurb).  We'll characterize it politically in the Monty Python formulation, with a 180-degree twist, ÇReactionary rubbish!È, except MR is a well-crafted, highly entertaining, and arguably somewhat ambiguous work, presenting James Bond-style action in a very British cyberpunk world.  See for a major character is a post-mortem personality housed in a cybernetic "neural network bioware core" (119), hotrod computer hackers doing burns in the manner of cowboy runs in W. Gibson's Neuromancer series (q.v., this section), high-tech surveillance and security, a "gigaconductor" as a technological and commercial breakthrough, and Royan (ch. 20 and passim): a maimed and mutilated young man intimately connected to computers, waldos, and various servo mechanisms, communicating with and through the world-wide cybernetic system.  The "esper" psi powers of the hero and at least one other character are mediated by artificial glands implanted in them.  CAUTION: Some sex, more Bolshy-bashing, Royan's mutilation, and one scene of bone cracking (ch. 40).



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/01      Hamilton, Peter F. and Graham Joyce. "The White Stuff."  In New Worlds vol. 64, q.v. under Anthologies.  **¢+"All you need to make afto-aspro is a little chip of breeder and the right chemical junk for it to scoff. [É]  You tell the afto-aspro what you want it to be, and it just fucking does in. [É] The function is hardformatted into the molecular structure.  It can be anything you want" (112).  This magic-like technology is controlled by poor people and destroys Capitalism; cf. and contrast nanoforges in J. Haldeman's Forever Peace (cited in this section). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/01      Hannan, Noel K.  "Night on the Town, A."  In New Worlds vol. 64, q.v. under Anthologies.  **¢+Features a near-future "Ford Machos 'Matador' Special Edition" automobile, that serves as a kind of "objective correlative" or synecdoche or metonym for aspects of plot, theme, and characterization of this story of Miguel, a rich kid in Nuevo Caracas, trying to impress his date and get laid (124 and passim). 



3. FICTION, RDE, 21/X/93       Harbou, Thea von.  Metropolis.  1926.  First English trans. 1927.  New York: Ace, 1963.  Forrest J. Ackerman, introd.  Based on the screenplay for Metropolis (q.v. under Drama), by TvH and Fritz Lang.  **¢+Very useful work for the imaginative reconstruction of Lang's Metropolis in its original form for Ufa but differs from the original film and differs significantly from the versions of the film extant as of the early 1990s.  The novel puts much less stress upon the robot Maria and far more on the (overwrought) psychologies of the major characters.  See for explicit mechanical gods: the machines of the Metropolis, served by the men of the masses, whom the machines devour (as in the film).  Caution: The owner of the Metropolitan exotic-drug and whore house is negatively characterized in terms of the nations contributing to his geneology.  The politics of the novel generally (definitely including its gender politics) differ from the film's somewhat, but may be even more simplistic. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 12/V/02      Harrison, Harry.  The Stainless Steel Rat Joins the Circus.  New York: Tor-Tom Doherty Associates, 1999.  **¢+A comic science-fictional caper novel (with some satire) relevant here for a villain competent with robots in a galaxy where robots are generally under Asimovian Laws of Robotics and "cannot harm man, lie, steal, commit sexual or immoral acts É".  For a robbery, the villain informs us, he does not use "intelligent robots" but "brainless machines that have been carefully programmed": "Robbery robots, specially designed for this single purpose" (138; ch. 13).  Protecting the villain's home is an intelligent robot; the villain got around the Laws of Robotics by instructing the robot "that all the humans on this planet are imposters.  Aliens in disguise"—and the "Stainless Steel Rat" and son must work out mind-games to use the robot's programming to get around it, finally getting the robot to blow "a fuse or something," possibly a logic circuit (239-41; ch. 24).  Cf. Asimov's I, Robot stories (cited above, this section) and the classic Star Trek episode "I, Mudd." 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Haynes, Mary.  Wordchanger.  New York: Lothrop, 1983.  **¢+A mother and son team discover that their husband/stepfather has invented a machine that can change the patterns of ink on a printed page by bending sheets of uranium.  They steal the machine and head across country.  Rev. Susan H. Harper, FR #70 (Aug. 1984): 47, our source for this entry. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 27/II/93       ADDITION TO R. A. HEINLEIN MOON/MISTRESS: See also K. Robinson's Red Mars, and J. Varley's Steel Beach. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Herrick, Robert.  Sometime.  New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1933.  **¢+Accordng to Sargent, deals with technology and a "labor army." Cf. Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward, cited above, this section.



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Hodder-Williams, Christopher.  Fistful of Digits.  London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1968.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as "Computer-dominated authoritarian dystopia."  (The Sergio Leone film A Fistful of Dollars, a very popular "spaghetti western" starring Clint Eastwood, was originally released in 1964 and re-released in the USA in 1967.) 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Holly, J. Hunter.  "The Graduated Robot."  In The Graduated Robot and Other Stories, Roger Elwood, ed.  "The Lerner Science Fiction Library."  Introd. Isaac Asimov.  Kathleen Groenijes, illus.  Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co., 1974: 9-26.



3.  FICTION, RDE, 26/IV/01     "I Believe the Robots Are Our Future,' an editorial by Helen Virginia Liedermeyer."  5 min., 14 seconds.  The Onion's Finest News Reporting, Volume One.  A Random House Audiobook, RH895, one cassette.  Maria Schneider as Helen Liedermeyer.  "The Onion's Finest News Reporting is also available on compact disc and in paperback from Three Rivers Press" (box cover).  URL: <>.  **+Satire in the form of a mushy liberal editorial on the necessity of robot self-esteem and knowledge of being loved, presented with high-tech vocabulary and written by people highly literate in S.F. conventions and clichŽs.  Ms. Liedermeyer argues that robots are our children and we "must teach them well and let them lead the way."  Other S.F. themes and motifs utilized: robots as eventual "overlords of the Solar System," "Mech wars," cybernetic beings' superiority to humans and other aspects of the silicon/carbon conflict, battle 'droids, robotic hive minds, self-manufacture of robots as "artificial lifeforms."  If we fail in our duty to love and educate our robot progeny, our future humans will be collar-wearing slaves, tortured by robots. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 16/VI/98 | 28/VI/98 REV. + ADD TO 3.412, HUGHES, TED. 


3.412   Hughes, Ted.  The Iron Man (vt).  George Adamson, illus.  London: Faber & Faber, 1968.  As The Iron Giant: A Story in Five Nights.  Robert Nadler, illus.  New York: Harper, 1968.  **+In this children's book, a giant Iron Man appears mysteriously in rural England and begins eating metal farm equipment.  The Iron Giant is befriended by a boy (Hogarth)  and eventually becomes "the champion of the earth, against , , , [a] monster from space" described as a "space-bat-angel-dragon" (short form: "dragon") large enough to cover Australia (40-42; ch. 4).  The "test of strength" is the ability to stand heat, with the stakes being the dragon's becoming the Iron Man's slave if the dragon loses (43; ch. 5); we assume that dragon would ÇkillÈ the Iron Man if the dragon won.  The Iron Man win, and the dragon becomes "the slave of the earth."  The dragon is "a star-spirit" and sings "The music of the spheres," which "is what makes space so peaceful."  The dragon became dangerous from "listening to the battle shouts and the war cries of the earth."  The Iron Giant becomes Earth's hero, "And the space-bat-angel's singing had the most unexpected effect.  Suddenly the world became wonderfully peaceful" (53, 55; ch. 5).  Cf. and contrast Gojira TaI Megagojira Godzilla vs. Mechanogodzilla), where we cheer on the figurative dragon.  The Iron Man was made into an album and theatrical musical by Pete Townshend of The Who (see under Music and Drama). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/VII/96    James, Peter.  Host.  London: Gollancz, 1993.  New York: Villard-Random House, 1995.  **¢+Technothriller, starting with a premise similar to that of the 1980 film Fatal Attraction.  Significant here for the theme of (in Gilbert Ryle's phrase) "the ghost in the machine," literalized to the downloading of human personality into a computer and then uploading into another body.  Unlike the joy of cyberspace, the personalities in the computer Archive and associated machines are not happy, feeling very much unempowered and claustrophobed.  Includes minor motifs of computer surveillance 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 20/I/97        Jennings, Phillip C.  "The Road to Reality."  Asimov's Science Fiction 20.3, #243 (March 1996): [108]-46.  **¢+Novelette.  Protagonist-narrator is a soul-like computer program who was a man of Terra and is a human personality, sometimes embodied in robots, sometimes within a computer on a starship in geosynchronous orbit, except they are some ten lightyears from Earth, so the "geo" is inexact.  (He has the option of vat-grown, lives bodies, but rejects that option during the course of the story.)  The starship people are terraforming a planet, where they will move among the people secretly or openly as teachers: the choice being the political conflict that moves the plot of the story.  In theory, the Terrans could become like gods, as in R. Zelazny's Lord of Light (q.v., this section); during the course of the story, we see the protagonist mostly among other program people (our term), in various virtual realities, and in one section as a player within a computer simulation.  Important story for themes of AI, human identity, and the image of a kind of ghost in a machine, as a program inside a computer, inside a starship.  Cf. and strongly contrast Dave Bowman in the lobotomy sequence in 2001: A Space Odyssey (as film and as A. C. Clarke's novel), and J. Sladek, The MŸller-Fokker Effect (q.v., this section, and the works cross-listed there). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/VII/01    Kerr, Philip.  A Philosophical Investigation.  London: Chatto & Windus, ©1992.  New York: Farar, Straus & Giroux, 1993. 

Rpt.  New York : Plume, 1994.  **¢+Rev. John Leonard, "Blood on the Tracts," The Nation, 7 June 1993: 788 f., our source for the annotation.  Deals with "an epidemic of 'recreational murder'" in a near-future London where PET scan technology can identify "'somatogenic determinants of violent crime'" including those that predispose men—not preordain, but predispose—to serial sex murder.  Participants in a program of counseling and drug therapy designed to keep the predisposed from violence are kept track of in a computer program called LOMBROSO, they are named after literary figures and, more important, philosophers.  The novel deals wittily with "free will and genetic fate (or somatogenic determinism" as well as with "genotypes and computer programs" (789). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 09/VII/95    Kipling, Rudyard.  "As Easy as A.B.C."  A Diversity of Creatures.  1917.  Coll. The Science Fiction Stories of Rudyard Kippling (q.v. under Anthologies).  **¢+Political fiction set in the same world as "With the Night Mail" (q.v. below), but a bit later: 2065 CE.  In this future, the Aerial Board of Control pretty well runs things (cf. H. G. Wells's Wings Over the World in Things to Come [cited under Drama]), and there is world-wide communication.  The happy ending of the story shows the full restoration of bureaucratic rule. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 09/VII/95    Kipling, Rudyard.  "The Eye of Allah."  Debits and Credits.  1926.  Coll. The Science Fiction Stories of Rudyard Kippling (q.v. under Anthologies).  **¢+Really science—by God!—fiction, showing the introduction of the microscope at the fictional monastery of St. Illod's in the middle of the 13th c. CE (some 300 years before the microscope entered our history).  The abbot has seen the wonders of optics in Cairo and has learned "that man stands ever between two Infinities—of greatness and littleness" (156), and he values such knowledge.  "What you have seen, I saw long since among the physicians at Cairo.  And I know what doctrine they drew from it"; he concludes that the birth of observational science "is untimely.  It will be but the mother of more death, kmore torture, more division, and greater darkness in this dark age.  Therefore I, who know both my world and the Chruch, take this Choice on my conscience.  Go!  It is finished," and he smashes the lens and burns the wooden parts of the device (158). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 09/VII/95    Kipling, Rudyard.  "The Ship That Found Herself."  The Day's Work.  1898.  Coll. The Science Fiction Stories of Rudyard Kippling (q.v. under Anthologies).  **¢+Relatively mainstream techno-fantasy featuring a many-voiced dialog among the various parts of a ship on her maiden voyage.  The ship must "find herself": i.e., get all the parts working together. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 09/VII/95    Kipling, Rudyard.  "Wireless."  Traffics and Discoveries.  1904.  Coll. The Science Fiction Stories of Rudyard Kippling (q.v. under Anthologies).  **¢+Near-in S.F.  A tale of the supernatural is naturalized by analogy.  Even as a radio Morse code device (the "wireless" of the title) reacts to invisible waves of electomagnetic energy, so the tubercular Mr. Shaynor receives from somewhere the words to John Keats's "The Eve of St. Agnes" (1819/1820). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 09/VII/95    Kipling, Rudyard.  "With the Night Mail: A Story of 2000 A.D."  Actions and Reactions.  1909.  Coll. The Science Fiction Stories of Rudyard Kippling (q.v. under Anthologies).  **¢+Techno-fiction, borderline S.F. set in a near-future when the long-distance mail is sent by lighter-than-air craft.  See also for air-traffic control and wireless communication (radio).  See this section, RK's "As Easy as A.B.C." 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 23/VII/95    Koch, Howard.  "Invasion from Inner Space."  Star Science Fiction #6.  Frederik Pohl, ed.  New York: Ballantine, 1959.  **+Cited under INNER SPACE in the 1993 Encyclopaedia of Science Fiction as "a story about sceptical COMPUTERS revolutionizing society." 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/III/01      KUTTNER, HENRY.  **¢+James Gunn quotes Catherine L. Moore in a personal letter: "Everything we wrote between 1940 and 1958, when Hank died, was a collaboration.  Well Almost everything."  See Gunn's "Henry Kuttner, C. L. Moore, Lewis Padgett, et al." in Voices for the Future, q.v. under Literary Criticism, rpt. Gunn's The Science of Science Fiction Writing (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2000): 175. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/04      Kuttner, Henry, and C. L. Moore.  "Home There's No Returning."  Coll. No Boundaries.  New York: Ballantine, 1955.  **¢+Said by K. Amis to feature "a vast peripatetic computer [É] incorporating the novelty, that, unlike ordinary computers but like men, it will make decisions on insufficient data."  The machine fails: "Immediately upon being activated it goes psychotic, and most of the story consists of the various attempts to calm it down," which is done—and the computer shuts itself down.  The military commander in charge of the operation concludes that the machine "couldn't act on partial knowledge.  No machine could.  You couldn't expect machines to face the unknown.  Only human beings can do that.  Steel isn't strong enough"—etc.  Amis finds this conclusion not complacency exactly but more "witness in a highly representative fashion to a boundless self-confidence [in S.F.], a feeling that if humanity to itself do rest true, no situation will be too tough and no problem to difficult" for us to handle or solve (New Maps 1975: 79; ch. 3 [Amis's subjunctive "do rest true" alludes to W. Shakespeare's King John 5.7.118]). 



3.468 ---, and C. L. Moore.  "The Twonky."  Astounding Sept. 1942.  Rpt. Souls in Metal, q.v. under Anthologies. 

                     A "twonky" is "more than a robot" and a lot more than the radio it appears to be: it's a monitoring, "readjusting," and, if necessary, destroying machine.  Made into a film by Arch Oboler (see The Twonky under Drama).



3.  FICTION, RDE, 25/VIII/99   Kuttner, Henry.  "Private Eye."  Astounding, Jan. 1949.  Rpt. Patricia S. Warrick et al., eds.  Science Fiction: The Science Fiction Research Association Anthology.  New York, Harper, 1988.  **¢+In the world of the story, the forces of law and order possess "a device for looking into the past."  It's "limited to a fifty-year span" but within that span it is "sensitive enough to pick up the 'fingerprints' of light and sound waves imprinted on matter, descramble and screen them, and reproduce the image of what had happened," and the sound (SFRA [207]).  And in this world of extreme surveillance, a man manages to get away with a murder. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/IX/95; REPLACEMENT FOR 3.469        L'Engle, Madeleine (Madeleine L'Engle Franklin).  A Wrinkle in Time.  New York: Ariel, 1962.  New York: Dell, 1975.  A Yearling Book.  **¢+Children's/young-adult novel in the religious-education tradition of C. S. Lewis's "Space Trilogy"—see below, That Hideous Strength—and Narnia stories, but lighter on specifically Christian doctrine than Lewis.  See WIT for space-time travel without a machine, a disembodied brain associated with "CENTRAL Central Intelligence," bureaucracy, "IT," large computers, demonic possession, monstrous evil, and with a regimented, conformist, "mechanized" society of highly humanoid aliens.  Cf. and contrast Star Trek episodes, "The Apple" and "Return of the Archons," and the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode, "Justice."  As much as IT can be conquered, the force of darkness here is bested by (non-erotic) love.  Discussed by M. Esmonde in her "Little Buddy . . ." essay anthologized in TMG; see Esmonde entry under Literary Criticism. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Leach, Decima.  The Garthians.  Ilfracombe, UK: Stockwell, 1962.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as a high-tech eutopia based on "the correct early training of children." 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/V/01      Laumer, Keith.  "Cocoon."  F&SF Dec. 1962.  Coll. Nine by Laumer, see under Anthologies.  Also coll. The Best of Keith Laumer.  New York: Pocket Books, 1976.  **¢+Future world in which humans are physically contained within computer-controlled cocoons, spending most of their time in VR.  Their city is eventually reached by a glacier, and the destruction begins.  Cf. E. M. Forster's "The Machine Stops"; see in Keyword Index "containment."  See below in this section, KL's "The Walls"; see under Literary Criticism H. Ellison's "Introduction: The Universe According to Laumer." 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/V/01      Laumer, Keith.  "Dinochrome" (vt. "Combat Unit").  F&SF as "Combat Unit" Nov. 1960.  Coll. Nine by Laumer, see under Anthologies.  Also coll. Bolo.  New York: Berkley/Putnam, 1976.  **¢+"A Mark XXXI Combat Unit is the finest fighting machine the ancient wars of the Galaxy have ever known," and this one tells us in a first-person narrative: "I am not easily neutralized" (Nine by Laumer 74-75).  He isn't, as we see—as the Narrator takes command (81) and leads his "brothers" back to consciousness, perhaps turning the tide in a war that has reduced the cultures of both side "to a pre-atomic technological level in almost every respect" (83).  See KL's Rogue Bolo collection of stories on AI tanks, cited this section. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/V/01      *Laumer, Keith.  "End as a Hero."  Galaxy June 1966.  Coll. Nine by Laumer, see under Anthologies.  Also coll. The Undefeated.  New York: Dell, 1974.  *+Features Psi-powers, a matter-transmitter with Psi-control, and a portal with an alien invasion force on the other side; cf. KL's "Long Remembered Thunder," cited below.  Note hero breaking out of captivity supervised by a military bureaucracy through an insight into the nature of "The matter transmitter—a strange device.  A field, not distorting space, but accentuating certain characteristics of a matter field in space-time, subtly shifting relationships ... [¦]  Just as the mind could compare unrelated data, draw from them new concepts, new parallels ... [¦]  The circuits of the matter transmitter ... and the patterns of the mind ... [¦]  The exocosm and the endocosm, like the skin and the orange, everywhere in contact ... [¦]"—and soon thereafter he pictures and then is on "a beach of white sand [É] and nowhere were there any generals with medals and television cameras, or flint-eyed bureaucrats with long schemes ..." (Nine by Laumer 54).  To what extent the transmission of the hero is mediated by the machine and to what extents it is pure power of his mind, we find ambiguous. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/V/01      Laumer, Keith.  "The Long Remembered Thunder."  Worlds of Tomorrow April 1963.  Coll. Nine by Laumer, see under Anthologies.  Rpt. The Best Science fiction from Worlds of Tomorrow.  Frederik Pohl, ed.  New York: Galaxy, 1964.  **¢+Features a machine that can focus thoughts, used as a weapon to keep an alien invasion force from crossing a portal into our world.  For Psi-powers and machinery, cf. KL's "End as a Hero," above, this section. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/V/01      Laumer, Keith.  "Placement Test."  Amazing July 1964.  Coll. Nine by Laumer, see under Anthologies.  Rpt. The Best from Amazing.  Joseph Ross, ed.  Garden City,  NY: Doubleday, 1967.  New York: Belmont, 1969.  **¢+The placement test places people in their jobs, in a system that is "all completely cybernetically controlled" (Nine by Laumer 104).  The story shows a man beating the system, and getting co-opted by it.  Cf. K. Vonnegut's Player Piano and R. S. Wilson's "For a While There, Herbert Marcuse, I Thought You Were Maybe Right About Alienation and Eros," both in this section. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/V/01      Laumer, Keith.  "The Walls."  Amazing March 1963.  Coll. Nine by Laumer, see under Anthologies.  **¢+Feminist-inflected dystopian fiction, with a central S.F. device.  Harry Trimble arrives home from work and tells his wife Flora that "We'll be the first in our cell block to have a Full-wall" TV screen installed (Nine by Laumer [55]).  Flora wants to GET OUT, go on a trip into a more natural world—one that may have been paved over in their lifetimes (64); Harry is more impressed with the "technical progress" that is meant to replace nature and open spaces: the "whole new system" of the Full-wall "programming scheme," where "they plan your whole day" (56).  In the course of the story, Flora is sealed into the "coffin" of their apartment by TV screens that are either repetitive TV shows or "a perfect mirror" (57-58).  "The Walls" can be read as a kind of post-Death-of-Nature, third-person narration Diary of a Mad Housewife (1967 book title and later movie), or, more relevantly, a fictionalization of the materially well-to-do suburban woman's "Problem that Has No Name" as analyzed in The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan (articles 1962 f.).  "The Walls" ends with Flora's vision of all the cell block walls becoming transparent so  she could see "the other women—the other wives, shut up like her in these small, mean cells; they were all aging and sick, and faded,  starved for fresh air and sunshine" (67).  Cf. TV screens in R. Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 and various elements in E. M. Forster's "The Machine Stops," Y. Zamiatin's We, and KL's "Cocoon" (all under Fiction); see in Keyword Index "television" and the citations under "ecology" and "environment."  



3.  FICTION, Paul Brians (on IAFA List), 11/I/00           ADD TO 3.487, "A Logic Named Joe" "First Contacts: The Essential Murray Leinster" ed. Joe Rico, ISBN 0-915368-67. (NESFA Press, 1998).



3. FICTION, RDE, 10/I/93         Lewitt, S. N.  Cybernetic Jungle.  New York: Ace, 1992.  **¢+Cyberpunk novel set in Brazil, similar in some ways to W. Gibson's Neuromancer series: with the "Wave" substituting for cyberspace, Yoruba gods for voodoo gods, the oligarchy of the fazenda families for the zaibatzu and the Yakuza, and the favela tribes of Brasilia for the denizens of the Sprawl.  Sets up the possibility of serious radical politics but doesn't develop them.  Rev. Richard D. Erlich, XXXXXXXXXXX



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/II/93        Maddox, Tom.  Halo.  New York: Tor, 1991.  **¢+See for detailed treatment of AI and the questions AI raises; also for Virtual Reality (VR) "neural interface sockets," and "computer assistants (memexs).  Rev. Robert Reilly, SFRA Review #202 (Dec. 1992): 40-41, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



3.  FICTION, TW, 13/I/95          Malzberg, Barry N.  The Engines of the Night: Science Fiction in the Eighties.  N.p.: Bluejay Books, 1982.  **¢+A collection of almost forty short essays on SF by the SF novelist and short story writer.  Strong statement of BN's views, but the title is misleading: the essays aren't particularly of interest for the topic of this List. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Malzberg, Barry N.  The Remaking of Sigmund Freud.  New York: Del Rey-Ballantine, 1985.  **¢+The mind of Sigmund Freud is resurected and placed in an android body in order to deal with a "series of psychiatric emergencies."  Rev. Lynn F. Williams, FR, #82 (Aug. 1985): 23, our source for this entry. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Manning, Laurence.  The Man Who Awoke.  New York: Ballantine, 1975.  Originally publ. in Wonder Stories 4, no. 10-5, no. 2 (Mar.-Aug. 1933).  **¢+Apparently a fix-up of dystopias of the future, described by Sargent (1988) as emphasizing "human dependence on machines."



3.  FICTION, RDE, 02/IX/95     Mason, Lisa.  Arachne.  © 1990.  New York: AvoNova-Avon, 1992.  **+A slightly kinder, gentler, and somewhat less bloody cyberpunk novel, with a human woman and female-gendered AI sort-of robot as protagonists, "telespace" open to the arrival of archetypes, and ethical issues handled with insight.  As in W. Gibson's Neuromancer series (q.v. this section), there is drug use, mega-firms, "transcendent" entities in cyberspace, and AI's, but their use is more serious here.  The drugs work, all right, but can be dangerous; the mega-firm we see is a very nasty law firm; the transcendent entities are psychological and historical (plausibly and explicitly from the collective unconscious); and the AI's are relatively realistic serious-comic characters, including the featured, feminine AI, PR. Spinner.  (NOTE: We follow the tradition of taking comedy seriously.)  See below, this section, LM's Cyberweb. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 26/XII/99    Mason, Lisa.  Cyberweb (written on two lines on cover and title pages).  New York: Avon, Hardcover, 1995.  Mass Market Printing, 1996.  Avon Eos Trade Printing, 1998.  **¢+Sequel to LM's Arachne.  Climax has Carly Nowlan freeing the telelinks of her ex-lover D. Wolfe and of her father, letting them truly die and rest in peace (cf. vampire and zombie motif), and freeing in IRL Ouija—"I release you, Ouija," is her formula (261; ch. 15.5)—an "aborigine" with whom she had a brief sexual relationship and who owes her, for other things, in terms of his tribal code.  At the end of the novel, Carly Nowlan is still associated with Pr. Spinner (a female-gendered, free-standing AI), but Spinner has assumed the excellent robot body of an Ultra: much more humanoid and feminine, and powerful; and Nowlan and Spinner are joined by the telelinker and inventor May Kovich, who exists in the solid world as a kind of cyborg, dependent upon her prosthetics—but is a hotshot in telespace (LM's version of cyberspace).  The three females are associated with the male-gendered Cognatus, a mainframe AI, and with Louie Zoo, a powerful figure inside telespace and capable of acting in the solid world.  We may assume they will go on to further adventures in a brewing conflict among the "Humanists," the "Silicon Supremacists" and such people as the "aborigine" tribes of San Francisco, who wish to avoid "tech-mech" society all together, whether run by humans or AI.  Note also the building of a very high-speed underground rail system, with the potential to open up the world of this series, moving things and people both physically and socially. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/II/93        Mason, Robert.  Solo.  New York: Putnam's, 1992.  **¢+Called a "technothriller" by the publisher.  A robot hero goes up against the US Central Intelligence Agency, Army, and Naval Intelligence.  Sequel to RM's Weapon (19XX), and a work that "invites the thoughtful reader to consider some of the more significant social and moral questions posed" by AI.  Rev. Robert Reilly, SFRA Review #202 (Dec. 1992): 41-42, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/XII/94    McCaffrey, Anne.  All the Weyrs of Pern.  New York: Del Rey-Ballantine, 1991.  **¢+Rev. Paula M. Strain, SFRA Review #209, Jan./Feb. 1994: 82, our source here and whom we quote.  A story of the dragons and dragon-riders of Pern, but straight S.F.: "Science and technology are at the forefront of the story throughout the book.  The opening lines of All the Weyrs of Pern are about AIVAS (Artificial Intelligence Voice-Activated System), which we met on the last pages of The Renegades of Pern, and AIVAS is constantly on stage until the next-to-last-page of the story.  The plot is a standard one—how technology is recovered by a society regressed to a lower standard by disaster . . . ."



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/VII/93; 22/VIII/93            McCaffrey, Anne.  Damia's Children.  New York: Ace-Putnam, [1993].  **¢+Sequel to The Rowan (1990) and Damia (1991 [so copyright on Bookcassette, q.v. under Drama] / 1992 [S. F. Book Club Edition]), moving the story into the third generation (and not completing the story, so the series can continue).  DC features Talented (sic) young people with the Psi powers of telekenesis, telepathy, teleportation and such; the book is significant here because teleportation is done in a "gestalt" interface with power generators and because at least one of the Talented youngsters has a strong interest in engineering.  The plot involves a war against Hive creatures (sic on the capital) with clear intent for intertextuality with R. A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers (q.v. this section [and note also J. Haldeman's Forever War and Orson Scott Card's Ender series]). 



3. FICTION, RDE, 27/VI/94      McCaffrey, Anne.  The Rowan.  New York: Ace-Putnam, 1990.  **+First of the Rowan books.  Note Purza the pukha: a kind of cybernetic teddy bear for helping kids who need a bit more than an imaginary friend; cf. and contrast H. Harrison's "I Always Do What Teddy Says" (cited in this section).  Note also premise of Rowan books of great power possible in a "gestalt" of power generators and humans with Psi powers.  The "beatle" invasion threat at novel's end is destroyed by a merging of human minds with Psi powers to <<decapitate>> (our word) the hive mind and then throw the planetoid the "beetles" come in by throwing it into the sun.  For the "beatle" enemy, cf. and contrast R. A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers and it descendants and critiques (J. Haldeman's The Forever War, Orson Scott Card's Ender's Game series [starting 1977], etc.—see this section).  Note that the <<decapitation>> is done by women, and the telekinetic destruction of the planetoid is done by men in gestalt with generators.  CAUTION: The novel is strongly pro-natalist and rather bellicose. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 10/X/96      McCaffrey, Anne, and S. M. Stirling.  The City Who Fought.  Riverdale, NY: Baen, 1993.  Dist. New York: Simon & Schuster.  © held by Bill Fawcett & Associates.  **¢+Simeon is the male shell-person running Space Station SSS-900, and he is a human body and brain, encased in a metal shell and interfaced with the station computer and its AI program.  The station is more or less Simeon's body, the AI program his faithful (talking) dog.  In the course of the story, Simeon adopts a girl-child, falls in love with his female "brawn," Channa Hap, and becomes a kind of co-husband to Channa along with Benisur ben Sierra Nuevos (called Amos): a Çsheik of Ara-byÈ sort.  The plot of CWF is the defense of the station against the pirate Kolnari: a physically superior, racist warrior race.  See also for Simeon's adopted daughter, "the child called Joat, for Jack-of-all-Trades [sic], who was hiding in the station's maintenance passages, and whose mechanical genius even Simeon found impressive" (cover notes).  Cf. and contrast Newt in Aliens (see under Drama).  CAUTION: Casual readers may see CWF endorsing xenocide of the dark-skinned Kolnari. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 29/X/94      McAuley, Paul J.  Red Dust.  London: Gollancz, 1993.  **¢+"Mars is dying because the precarious balance achieved by the terraforming is failing, winter by winter the freed water gradually freezing back into the crust.  The Emperor, a 'Consensus' AI, is allowing it to happen, in the interests of cleansing the solar system of human handiword and superseding the organic mode" (rev. Colin Greenland, Foundation #60 [Spring 1994]: 99-102; here quoted, 101; we depend upon Greenland for our citation). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 09/I/97        McDaid, John G.  "Jigoku No Mokushiroku (The Symbolic Revelation of the Apocalypse."  Asimov's Science Fiction 19.15, #240 (Dec. 1995): [104]-19.  **¢+Narrated, in English, by an AI elevator with the dedication name "Hitoshi" (110)—after Hitoshi Igarashi, translator into Japanese of The Satanic Verses (108)—and a Turing ID that indicates high intelligence.  In 2014 Hitoshi operates in a world of dangerous Millennialist cults and works to allow "the spirits latent in all the materials" comprising itself to satisfy their "hunger . . . for movement and growth."  The elevator dreams "of a pattern . . . .  The pattern that seeks to know itself" (117).  Fulfilling that dream seems to include taking into possession a very powerful bomb, "which, I think, will certainly come in handy eventually," a line followed immediately by the last line of the story: "After all, I don't intend to be an elevator forever ..." (119). 



3. FICTION, RDE, 2/II/93          McDonough, Thomas R.  The Missing Matter.  New York: Bantam, 1992.  Introd., "Dark Matter," by Isaac Asimov.  Essay, "The Attraction of Darkness," by Wallace H. Tucker.  Book 3 of The Next Wave Series.  **¢+See for a fairly near-future robot modelled on that great 20th-c. hero, Sylvester Stalone (mostly in Rambo mode); note also a culture that produces highly complex biological machines. 



LONG FORM OF 3.553McElroy, Joseph.  Plus.  New York: Knopf, 1977.  **¢+SF in the sense of "cybernetic fiction," Plus presents "the story of a human brain excised from its body" and placed into orbit around Earth in a "computerized capsule.  The brain is hitched to various machines for control and communication.  At first a sheerly mechanical device," the brain "slowly regains consciousness of itself as human and retrieves some of its human memories" (quoting David Porush, abstract for "The Imp in the Machine: McElroy's Plus and Cybernetics," paper delivered at the session on Writing as a Self-Reflexive Technology, Conference on Science, Technology, and Literature, Brooklyn, NY, 24 Feb. 1983).  See in this section the citations for A. McCaffrey's Ship Who Sang, and K. O'Donnell's Mayflies.  See under Literary Criticism Porush's Soft Machine. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/II/93        McHugh, Maureen F.  China Mountain Zhang.  New York: Tor, 1992.  **¢+A bildungsroman using "many of the conventions of cyberpunk" and dealing well with hero's dealing with technologies in constant flux.  Rev. Robert Reilly, SFRA Review #202 (Dec. 1992): 42, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/II/93        Menick, Jim.  Lingo, 3.565.  Rev. Richard D. Erlich, SFRA Review #199 (July/August 1992): 62. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 17/IX/94; DanB        Monteleone, Thomas F.  Seeds of Change.  Don Mills, ON: Laser-Harlequin, 1975.  **¢+Back cover blurb: "The Denver Citiplex that evolves over the next two centuries, which technologically a masterpiece, is a living hell for those whom computer analysis labels potential deviants from the genetically controlled social norms.  In his frantic effort to escape the fate of all such deviants, Eric Stone and his beautiful girlfirend, Hessica, manage to reach an underground colong living in the wastlands outside the city. . . ."  Cf. and contrast Logan's Run (cited under Drama). 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Naha, Ed.  The Paradise Plot.  New York: Bantam, 1980.  **¢+According to Sargent (1988), a eutopian space colony develops problems.



3.  FICTION, RDE, 10/XI/01     Nowlan, Philip Francis.  "The Airlords of Han."  Amazing (March 1929) 1106-36.  Sequel to PNF's "Armageddon—2419 A.D.," Amazing (August 1928): 422-49.  The two stories are combined and revised in Armageddon 2419 A.D., 1962, and re-revised in 1978.  For some of the complex bibliographic issues, see Alan Kalish et al., "'For Our Balls Were Sheathed in Inertron': Textual Variations in 'The Seminal Buck Rogers Story,'" Extrapolation 29.4 (Winter 1988): 303-18.  **¢+"The Seminal Buck Rogers Story" helped introduce to a wider US public a good deal of nifty S.F. paraphernalia of violence, including two items of importance: see the chapters on "The Mysterious 'Air Balls'" (1929: ch. XII, 1962: ch. XIV, 1978: ch. XIII) and "The Destruction of Lo-Tan," the enemy capital, by atomic bombs (1929: ch. XIV, 1962: ch. XVI, 1978: ch. XV).  PFN may have been somewhat late in the fictional use of atomic warfare: see in this section J. H. Sedberry's Under the Flag of the Cross and A. Graham's The Collapse of Homo Sapiens.  As the title to the article by Kalish et al. hints, these two stories are rife with either unconscious humor or double-meaning lines relating war and sex (from a male point of view).  CAUTION: As Kalish et al. demonstrate, the revised versions remove the "Yellow Peril" language of the original but are still racist (sexism in the revised stories is more complex). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/X/94      O'Brien, Fitz-James.  "The Wondersmith."  The Atlantic Monthly Oct. 1859.  The Poems and Stories of Fitz-James O'Brien.  William Winter, ed.  Boston: James R. Osgood and Co., 1881.  The Supernatural Tales of Fitz-James O'Brien, vol. 1: Macabre Tales.  Jessica Amanda Salmonson, ed. (?) and introd.  New York: Doubleday, 1988.  **¢+G. Hoppenstand puts the story "within the tradition of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein," helping "to establish the automaton, or robot, as an important literary motif in imaginative literature" (14).  Hoppenstand finds F-JO's "killer dolls" also "loosely patterned after the human-like machines in [E.T.A.] Hoffmann's 'Automata' (1814) and 'The Sand-Man' (1816-1817)" (22).  See for killer dolls and "a magical artificial eye" that gives a villain "second sight when he removes it" from its socket (Hoppenstand 19)—cf. Bill & Ted's Bogus Journey.  Caution: Includes some antisemitism and "senseless violence" (Hoppenstand 17, 21).  Quotations from Hoppenstand, upon whom we depend for citation and annotation. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           O'Neill, Gerard K.  2081: A Hopeful View of the Human Future.  New York: Simon, 1981.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as "Technological eutopia."  Note date and publisher: a recent book from a major publishing house is taking this position. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Pezet, A. Washington.  Aristokia.  New York: Century, 1919.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as a borderline utopia, a humorous book that pits an overly high-tech "society (motorized shoes, food tablets)" against a more sensible society; the better society loses. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 03/VII/95    Piercy, Marge.  He, She[,] and It.  1991.  New York: Fawcett Crest (Ballantine-Random), 1992.  **+The story of the Golem of Prague (see Golem under Drama) is intercut with the story of Yod: a near-future cyborg.  Yod is traditionally heroic—a good warrior and an excellent lover—but with obvious variations on the theme.  For the cyberspace warrior part, see W. Gibson's Neuromancer novels; for the sexual theme, cf. and emphatically contrast Yod with Davy in J. Russ's "An Old-Fashioned Girl" and The Female Man (cited this section).  Note also utopian the hint: an almost entirely off-stage new Palestine/Israel rising from the nuclear and toxic ashes, brought forth by Palestinian and Israeli women.  For our concerns, note question of the humanity, masculinity, sexuality, spirituality, and Jewishness of a cyborg.  (Cf. much simpler issues with Mr. Data in STNG, cited under Drama.) 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 26/VI/04     Pohl, Frederik.  The Boy Who Would Live Forever.  New York: TOR, 2004.  ("A Tom Doherty Associates Book.")  **¢+Fifth book in The Heechee Saga (first four: Gateway, Beyond the Blue Event Horizon, Heechee Rendezvous, The Annals Of The Heechee).  As with other works in the series, AI characters are emphatically characters, with the "Stovemind" Marc Antony—a chef and military agent—given first-person protagonist narration not given to the human protagonists (Marc Antony introduces himself in ch. 9, "The Story of a Stovemind").  Again, humans have the possibility to be vastened, "That is," as described by Gelle-Klara Moynlin, to "take me out of my meat body, with all its aches and annoyances, and make me a pure, machine-stored intelligence" (ch. 7, "Hatching the Phoenix," ¤3).  Given the violence that we see by "meat" creatures, this may seem like a good idea, but BWWLF carefully computes the social and cultural costs of commodified machine-storage on a large scale: "Machine-stored people don't do much inventing.  They don't do research either. [É] They're the lotus-eaters [É].  The people who need nothing, and thus do nothing useful at all!"  BWWLF does not take this position by Sigfird von Shrink as definitive, but it does come down finally and pretty solidly on the side of organic humans living politically (ch. 24, "On the Way to Forever," ¤7). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/VII/95    Pohl, Frederik.  "A Day in the Life of Able Charlie."  1976.  Pohlstars.  **+  Story "explores the several minutes when an AC-770 computer completes its analysis of a typical,m married American man, makes its report, and begins 'its new life' (Po 188) as another program—that of a teenage girl."  Originally written, FP asserts, for an advertising campaign (Thomas Clareson, Frederik Pohl [Mercer Island, Washington: Starmont, 1987]: 124).



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/VII/95    Pohl, Frederik.  "The Fiend."  XXXXXXXXX, Digits and Dastards 1964.  **+The captain of a starship receives a sixteen-year old girl whom he wishes "to possess . . . as a slave."  Story ends with revelation "that Dandridge is a cyborg whose mind infuses the ship, while his body lies on 'coldside Mercury'—for unspecified crimes, though by implication they parallel this incident" (Thomas Clareson, Frederik Pohl [Mercer Island, Washington: Starmont, 1987]: 80), 



3. FICTION, RDE, 29/IX/93      Pohl, Frederik.  Mining the Oort.  New York: Ballantine, 1992.  Available in an S. F. Book Club edn. (ISBN 0-345-37199-2).  **¢+Most of MtO is set on the Martian colony, in a high-tech academy on Earth using VR-assisted teaching and learning, and on a space station, with a brief scene in a "fixbot" repair vehicle (259-60) and allusions to actual mining operations in the Oort comet cloud, with individuals in intimate connection with small space ships (72, 119-20).  Significant for naturalizing these mechanized environments into mere settings for a story about economics, enculturation, political violence, and morality.  Cf. and contrast Pohl's Gateway series and Man Plus (for the "man minus" castration motif, see MtO 72). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/VI/01     Pohl, Frederik.  The Other End of Time, The Siege of Eternity, The Far Shore of Time.  A trilogy or the first three books in the "Eschaton Sequence."  New York: Tor Books, 1996, 1997, 1999.  Mass market paperbacks, OET: 1997, SE: 1998, FST: 2000.  **¢+The "Eschaton" here is precisely what it means in eschatology: the End Time after the Apocalypse, here Apocalypse as the entirely natural Big Crunch when the universe collapses on itself—adding the theologically eschatological idea that sentients will survive the Big Crunch, and dead intelligent creatures will be resurrected, to live forever.  Who will rule that "forever" is the final contest foreseen in this series, contested in the Earth's quite near future by two great species (and Homo sapiens sapiens—our species—is neither of them).  As with FP's Gateway series, technology, esp. alien technology, is central but usually in the background: often something humans want to get hold of to use, study, or and/or sell in the cases of alien technology.  FST the most relevant for, among other motifs, the following: machines vs. controlled intelligent biological creatures; very strange and smart alien robots (which look most like Christmas trees, not helpful humans or animals); implants for spying, controlling, and translating, matter transmission and replication; speculations on quantum sources of energy and matter.  Human technology of interest is a full-body life-support system in FST, occasional references passim to collars for criminals and other held under surveillance (cf. collars for "Risks" in FP and J. Williamson's Reefs of Space [q.v., this section]), and assorted high-tech items unobtrusively extrapolated from our world. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 05/VIII/98, 4/I/00, 6/I/99     Powers, Richard.  Galatea 2.2.  Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1995.  Rpt. HarperPerennial, 1996**¢+  In this work, John Updike says, RP "brilliantly and . . . movingly imagined a computer, called Helen, whose artificial intelligence expanded into the realm of soul, will, and personality" ("Soup and Death in America," The New Yorker, 27 July 1998: 76). web site, 5 Aug. 1998, gives the Synopsis: "Richard Powers, a Humanist-in-Residence at the Center for Advanced Scientific Research, gets involved with a project to train a machine to pass a comprehensive exam in English literature—and with the degree candidate against whom the machine is competing."  Same site gives a rev. by Nancy Pearl, From Booklist, 05/01/95 noting that the project involves the fictional Powers's using his knowledge of literature to aid "a cognitive neurologist, win a bet," i.e., the one on the creation of AI.  Pearl thinks well of the development of Helen; we agree, but will add that Helen develops very interestingly and sympathetically for a neural net, but that one may remain agnostic as to whether or not "she" achieves true AI, "soul, will, and personality."  For most readers, however, it will be she, without quotation marks, as Helen passes the Turing Test, and develops into a character in the novel as real as any of the humans.  The "U." where the supercomputer operations are located is never named, but the data in the novel are consistent with Urbana-Champaign and the University of Illinois, which would give Helen the same home town, so to speak, as HAL 9000 in A. C. Clarke's 2001, and, perhaps more relevantly, SAL 9000 in ch. 3 of Clarke's 2010; also cf. and contrast HARLIE in D. Gerrold's When HARLIE Was One (all listed in this section [see also under Drama 2001 and 2010.]). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 28/V/95      ADD TO PYNCHON, GRAVITY'S RAINBOW **¢+Caution: Contains scenes of S&M, coprophilia, urolagnia and other kinkiness that will probably offend people who don't know the initials and/or the words. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Resnick, Mike.  "Beachcomber."  In Chrysalis 8.  Roy Torgeson, ed.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980.  Coll. Unauthorized Autobiographies and Other Curiosities.  Dearborn, MI: Misfit P, 1984.  **¢+Story about a robot travel agent.  Rev. Philip E. Smith II, FR, #70 (Aug. 1984): 22, our source for this entry. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Reynolds, Mack (pseud. of Dallas McCord Reynolds).  Computer World.  New York: Modern Literary Editions, 1970.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as "Computer dystopia."




3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Reynolds, Walter Doty.  Mr. Jonnemacher's Machine.  The Port to which we drifted.  By Lord Prime, Esq.  Librarian to the State Library of Pennsylvania, A.D. MMXVI.  Philadelphia, PA: Knickerbocker Book Co., 1898.  **¢+Author's name suppled by Sargent (1988), who describes the book as "Anti-technology," on what seems to be Luddite grounds. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 24/VII/02    Robinson, Kim Stanley.  Blue Mars.  New York: Sprecta-Bantam, 1996.  **+Sequel to Red Mars and Green Mars (q.v., this section), apparently completing the trilogy.  A political, arguably utopian novel, with science and technology mostly in the background—but it is made explicit here that, in part, "Science is politics by other means" (389; "Natural History"), and we see a Mars significantly terraformed, with high-tech human culture expanding into the Solar System, and with domesticated, plausible AI and robots.  See also for the effect of politics on science (581), and for an indirect critique of "strong artificial intelligence, as well as" our "era's version of the 'machine fallacy,' an inverse of the pathetic fallacy, in which the brain was thought of as being something like the most powerful machine of the time," e.g., the briefly popular hologram analogy" (584; "Experimental Procedures").  Note a character's thought (Desmond's): "Curious how useful Freud's steam-engine model of the mind remained, compression, venting, the entire apparatus, as if the brain had been designed by James Watt" (630; "Experimental Procedures").  Note also Sax's conclusion that "Patterns of quantum fluctuation, diverging and collapsing; this was consciousness" (586; "Experimental Procedures")—perhaps the near-future version of "the 'machine fallacy,'" with the brain thought of in terms of quantum computers. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 04/VII/95    Robinson, Kim Stanley.  Green Mars.  New York: Sprecta-Bantam, 1994.  **+Sequel to Red Mars (q.v. below), continuing the story of the failed revolution of 2061 through a far more successful one a generation later.  Important for continuing the presentation of a Solar System of transnational and even "metanational" corporations, personal AI computers, space elevators, and high-tech weaponry—in which all the hardware is still kept in the background, the mise en scne for a political novel. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 29/VIII/93    Robinson, Kim Stanley.  Red Mars.  New York: Spectra-Bantam. 1993.  (ISBN 0-553-09204-9 [hc])  **¢+First book in KSR's Mars trilogy: Initial human colonization of Mars, including a revolution for freedom from the Terran United Nations and (more centrally) the transnational coporations really running Terra and much of Mars (cf. and contrast zaibatsu [multinationals] of cyberpunk and the ad agencies of Pohl and Kornbluth's Space Merchants), told in the conventions of the realistic novel.  The relationships among humans, technology, and Mars are crucial for this novel, but technology—including such impressive technology as a space elevator—is kept firmly secondary to human interactions.  Cf. and emphatically contrast R. Heinlein's Moon Is a Harsh Mistress (listed under Fiction) for colonial revolution greatly aided (in Moon) by an AI computer, and A. C. Clarke's The Fountains of Paradise (1978), for a much less problematic space elevator. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 29/IX/95     Rucker, Rudy.  The Hacker and the Ants.  New York: Morrow/AvoNova (hardcover), 1994.  New York: AvoNova-Avon, 1995.  **+A kinder, gentler form of cyberpunk and a very important novel for the theme of the human/machine interface.  Set in a near-future "Silicon Valley" and associated areas, HatA is a first-person narrative of a middle-aged, divorced hacker with two kids and a highly active libido, ending with the hacker having a good relationship with his kids, an ex-wife engaged to be married to someone else, a steady woman-friend and a developing relationship with a very young woman, and the hacker's conclusion, after a vision at Yosemite, "that, yes, even rocks are alive. ¦ So who needs smart machines?" (last two sentences of HatA).  The action of the novel features cyberspace, robots, TV, AI, VR, cybernetic waldos, and both virtual and cybernetic "ants," plus good biology about biological ants—plus a couple huge and disreputable Silicon Valley firms.  Cyberspace here is, indeed, a (virtual) space for adventure but also a place of nightmares and horrors.  The "great work" the key hackers in the novel pursue is the creation of true artificial, intelligent life.  Cf. and contrast the films TRON and Short Circuit, and such cyberpunk novels as W. Gibson's Neuromancer trilogy (listed under Drama and Fiction respectively). 



3. FICTION, RDE, 17/I/94         Saberhagen, Fred.  Berserker Kill.  New York: Tor, 1993.  ISBN 0-312-85266-5.  **¢+Important book in the berserker series of stories about "bad machines": machines working to sterilize the universe, with Earth-descended Solarian humans as a special target.  BK shows us a living member of the species of the Builders (sic) of the beserkers and deals significantly with the themes of recorded personality, storage cases for zygotes, artificial wombs, VR, computer programs functioning as people, seedships, and a literal version of the mind/body problem.  For recorded personalities, see W. Gibson's Neuromancer series and F. Pohl's "Day Million," Heechee Rendezvous, and Annals of the Heechee; for seedships, see J. Williamson's Manseed and the works crosslisted there; for "machines" becoming human, see R. Zelazny's "For a Breath I Tarry"—all listed under Fiction.  (BK is also useful for suggesting ways of discussing human [et al.] zygotes as "protopeople" without closing the contemporary abortion debate by coming down firmly on the "prolife" side.) 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 28/VIII/97   Sagan, Carl.  Contact.  1985.  New York: Pocket Books ("a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.").  **¢+Very serious First Contact story dealing, as we would expect from Sagan, quite carefully with questions of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life (SETI) and Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life (CETI), and with issues in religion and the social sciences.  Relevant here, the machine that the aliens instruct the humans how to build comes to be called just "the Machine" (254) and that it eventually becomes the device through which five human beings achieve Faster than Light travel and contact: a protective enclosure during a marvelous journey and a kind of portal to the world of adventure.  Rev. extensively, including Gregory Benford, FR, #85 (Nov. 1985): 24.  Cf. and emphatically contrast the device built as an IQ test in This Island Earth (1955).  See Contact under Drama. 



3.  FICTION, Maly, 00/XII/02    Scott, Melissa.  Dreaming Metal.  New York: Tor Books, 1997.  **+ DM centers around the emergence of "true AI," or AI woken into true consciousness.  Development and usage of human-level machines that are digital replicas of brain operations.  Rev. Russell Blackford, The New York Review of Science Fiction #120, 10.12 (August 1998): 21-23, our source here and whom we paraphrase.  For arising of AI consciousnes see in this section R. A. Heinlein's The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress; see under Drama, the Terminator films and note narration in Terminator 2 of the coming to consciousness of Skynet. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 27/I/93         Scott, Melissa.  Dreamships.  New York: Tom Doherty Associates, [1992].  "A Tor Book."  **¢+A kinder, gentler, more spacefaring yberpunk novel than those associated with W. Gibson (q.v.) et al., but definitely cyberpunk in its examination of implants, rule by corporations, and the question of the personhood and rights (although not the godhead) of a computer program that might have broken the Turing Barrier (239) and achieved true AI.  Esp. significant for a strong Humanist assertion that a real, living human being has greater value than a copy of all that human's data (300-302), for erotic scenes of the woman/machine interface between the female hero and her computerized spaceship (ch. 5), and for the suggestion in the last paragraph of the book that implants and prosthetics are tools that change the users (cf. transition from Australopithecus to Homo in A. C. Clarke's 2001, D. Knight's "Masks," and C. L. Moore's "No Woman Born," cited under Fiction). 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Sharkey, Jack (i.e. John Michael Sharkey).  "The Programmed People."  Amazing 37.6-7 (June-July 1963).  Publ. as Ultimatum in 2050 A.D.  New York: Ace, 1963.  **¢+According to Sargent (1988), a combination of eutopia and dystopia, "with controls designed to keep population steady."



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Shaw, Bob.  Orbitsville Departure.  London: Gollancz, 1983.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988), in part, as "New life on huge artificial world."



3.  FICTION, RDE, 27/XII/04    Shawl, Nisi. "Deep End."  So Long Been Dreaming: Postcolonial Science Fiction & Fantasy.  Ed. Nalo Hopkins and Uppinder Mehan.  Vancouver, BC: Arsenal, 2004.  12-22.  **¢+See for motif of uploading and downloading personalities, ÇupÈ to AI (Artificial Intelligence) storage in the ship's "mind" and ÇdownÈ to clones.  Prisoners' bodies are destroyed, their personalities uploaded, and then downloaded into clones of bodies of members of the ruling elite.  The protagonist accepts "her" body as "hers.  No one else owned it, no matter who her clone's cells had started off with.  Hers, no matter how different it looked from the one she had been born with.  How white" (17). 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Sheckley, Robert.  The 10th Victim.  New York: Ballantine, [1966].  **¢+Novelization of film La Decima Vittima (The Tenth Victim), q.v. for annotation.



3. FICTION, RDE, 27/III/93       Sheckley, Robert.  "Early Model."  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.  **¢+See for a protective device that proves very dangerous to the wearer.  Note for comic handling of theme of scientists, technicians, and/or bureaucrats rigidly sticking to plans that sometimes go wrong. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Sheckley, Robert E.  Immortality, Inc.  New York: Bantam, [1959].  London: Gollancz, 1963.  [Caution: Currey notes Immortality Delivered as a "Text abridged against the author's wishes.  Full text published as Immortality, Inc."]  Serialized, Galaxy, Oct.-Feb. 1959 under vt "Time Killers."  **¢+Earth in 2110 offers a kind of immortality through mechanical treatment allowing mind's survival of the "death trauma"; novel shows a decadent society presided over by the Rex Corporation, whose workers are cold and alienated from humankind. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/04      Sheckley, Robert.  "Ticket to Tranai, A."  Galaxy, Oct. 1955.  Coll. Citizen in Space.  New York: Ballantine, 1955.  The Robert Sheckley Omnibus.  London: Gollancz, 1973.  **¢+See for what Kinglsey Amis calls "the disimprovement branch of the robot works," and the creation of intentionally poor-quality, annoying robots on which humans can vent aggression" (Amis, New Maps of Hell 117-118, q.v. under LitCrit).



3. FICTION, RDE, 17/IX/94      Shobin, David.  The Unborn.  New York: Linden-Simon, 1981.  **¢+Retells Ira Levin's Rosemary's Baby (film by Roman Polanski, 1968), with a giant computer replacing Satan in everything except the actual insemination.  See for Gothic variations on the themes of (mechanical) possession and computer takeover; see also for a clumsy juxtaposition of bureaucracy and computer machine takeover



3.  FICTION, RDE, 24/VII/02    Silverberg, Robert.  The King of Dreams.  "First published in Great Britain by Voyager 2001."  London: Voyager-HarperCollins, 2002.  **¢+A late book in the RS's Majipoor cycle of heroic stories set on a huge planet isolated from whatever sentient species remain in the galaxy and mostly low-tech and technologically stagnant, with some exceptions.  Relevant here for the technological exception of a "helmet" that gives one psi powers.  KoD deals with the possibilities of planet-wide peace and stability offered by such a helmet worn by a highly moral King of Dreams, acting as a new Power on Majipoor.  Dealt with at greater length: the power for evil when mind control is in the hands of an evil person.  Mentioned but not developed: the possibilities of tyranny from constant surveillance of populations—even by good people—with such a device.  See for a technology so far advanced it appears like magic.  Key passages are in chapters Two.7 and .12; Three.1, .5, .6, .12, .14, .15, .16, .19 / pages 107, 112 f. 155 f., 215, 252, 254 f., 268 f.; 123, 218, 316, 353, 365, 397; 433, 420, 449-50, 460, 476 f., 508-9 (pagination in the 2002 edn.)



3.  FICTION, RDE, 27/III/95      Simak, Clifford.  "How-2."  1954.  **¢+Robot story, dramatized by W. Welch as How to Make a Man, q.v. under Drama. 






3.  FICTION, RDE, 16/V/99      Slonczewski, Joan.  Door into Ocean.  **¢+Machine-rule revealed at or near conclusion????



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Smith, L. Neil.  Lando Calrissian and the Flamewind of Oseon.  New York: Del Rey-Ballantine, 1983.  **¢+Standard Star Wars machinery, including the Millenium Falcon and an alien droid of mysterious origins.  Rev. Bill Collins, FR, #70 (Aug. 1984): 27, our source for this entry. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 11/VI/00     Steinbeck, John.  The Grapes of Wrath.  New York, Viking, 1939.  Frequently rpt.  **¢+Mainstream, proletarian novel, with a relevant theme and at least one highly significant section.  C. B. Chabot (see under LitCrit) notes that the introduction of "modern technology not only deprives" most of the farm families in the novel "of their means of securing livilihoods, but rends as well the fructifying ties to the land even of those who do remain."  A man on a tractor can replace a dozen or so share-cropper families, lowering costs and increasing production, but in addition to displacing and dispossessing those families, "'The man sitting in the iron seat did not look like a man; gloved, goggled, rubber dust mask over nose and mouth, he was part of the monster, a robot in the seat'" (Steinbeck 48; qtd. Chabot 214).  Cf. and contrast Steinbeck in GoW, Of Mice and Men (1937), and elsewhere on the Modern condition of isolation, loneliness, and estrangement with the literalizing of those conditions in the cellular life of humanity in E. M. Forster's "The Machine Stops" (1909; see above, this section).  Contrast positive, "dancing," tractors in Sergei Eisenstein's Old and New (1929, listed under Drama). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 20/VIII/00   Stephenson, Neal.  Cryptonomicon.  New York: Avon, 1999.  New York: Perennial (HarperCollins), 2000.  918pp. with Appendix.  **¢+"Mundane" novel (in S.R. Delany's usage).  In its full arc, Cryptonomicon is a romantic comedy, ending with a slightly new, potentially better world coalescing around a central couple about to get more domestic.  Within that arc, however, there is a good deal of suffering (including much from World War II) and satire; there is also a good deal of fiction informed by the sciences of math and cryptology.  Cryptonomicon handles themes of whether a spider's brain is "some kind of internal Turing machine" (141) or if the human brain is a "Universal Turing Machine" (20)—and possibly the ocean as well (445), bureaucracies imaged as a pinball machine (210), a major character "plugged into the Universe" while using sophisticated technology to crack a safe (306), the development of digital computers (194-96, 342, 376, 596, 830), appropriate technology and "technological cunning" for resisting holocausts and powerful psychopaths (401, 803-808), the Turing test (844-45), frequent high-tech surveillance, machine-mediation of experience (e.g., 800), and the advantages and disadvantages of technocratic conspiracies (83-84, passim).  Like the H.G. Wells of Things to Come (q.v. under Drama), NS here approves of a conspiracy of technocrats, but he leaves the issue far more open than Wells does; and far more than Wells or most technophiles, NS insists on the satiric point that "Little man 'tate"—the human male prostate—may control human male behavior as much as the brain does.  NS's Narrator presents humans "As nightmarishly lethal, memetically programmed death-machines," evolved from "stupendous badasses" going back "to that first self-replicating gizmo" (5) to cross the barrier of nonliving to living matter.  Still, the text celebrates adaptability more than violence as the key to genetic survival, and the happy ending rewards flexibility. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 03/VII/95, 2/VI/99, 6/XII/03 Stephenson, Neal.  Snow Crash.  New York: Spectra-Bantam, 1992.  **+Excellent novel, set in a near-future dystopic USA that excells in music, movies, computer software, and the rapid delivery of pizza (3); handles cyberpunk tropes with sensitivity and humor.  See for cyborg dogs (and sequences from the point of view of a very sympathetic canine), cyberspace, computer/mind viruses, and the superimposition of the very high-tech upon pizza.  For tone (and quality), cf. F. Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth's The Space Merchants.  Note Ng in his van: ""Where the driver's seat ought to be, there is a sort of neoprene pouch about the size of a garbage can suspended from the ceiling by a web of straps, shock cords, tubes, wires, fiber-optic cables, and hydraulic lines.  It is swathed in so much stuff that it is hard to make out its actual outlines. [* * *] "where you'd sort of expect to see arms, huge bundles of wires, fiber optics, and tubes run up out of the floor and are seemingly plugged into Ng's shoulder sockets" (210).  Ng is in cyborg relationship with his van, or, alternatively, the van is a huge prosthetic for Ng; cf. and contrast the swaddled Vashti at opening of E. M. Forster's "The Machine Stops" and the radical prosthesis for the protagonists in D. Knight's "Masks" and F. Pohl's Man Plus (both cited under Fiction). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 07/XI/98     Sterling, Bruce.  Heavy Weather.  New York: Bantam Spectra, 1994.  **¢+The story of Alex Unger and his sister Jane Unger in Mexico and the southwestern United States of 2031, not long after the end of the "State of Emergency" dictatorship.  It is a post-Ecodisaster world of deadly conspiracies ("The Great Game" played out by the latest "American secret government" [273]); a world of heavy weather and organized private groups who chase tornadoes, a world of general environmental deterioration, VR, no AI exactly but very high technology and "smart machines" (the opening words of this novel), antibiotic-resistant pathogens, an approaching F6 (the mother of all tornadoes), and probably too many people.  If cyberpunk is "the apotheosis of the postmodern" (in Istan Csicery-Ronay's phrase), and if central to po-mo is the death or elimination of nature or the incorporation of nature into culture, HW might be seen as simultaneously cyberpunk and anticyberpunk.  Nature has not been killed, defeated, or contained in HW but is alive and, anthropomorphically speaking, very pissed off.  Raises seriously but does not answer the question of just when "the human race conclusively lost control over its own destiny" (243), primarily in the sense of the last chance we had to prevent ecological disaster.  Among the "Storm Troupers" willing to answer such a question the suggested years are 1967-68, 1989/91, 1914, late 1980s, 1950s, 1945, 1492 and late 19th-c., 1789: suggesting it is now too late to avoid "heavy weather" both literally and figuratively. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 01/I/95        Stirling, S. M., and David Drake.  The General.  New York: Baen, 1991.  **¢+Future-war novel featuring a society that practices "computer worship."  "While exploring the catacombs beneath the capital city . . . Captain Whitehall . . . comes across a long-forgotten, sentient battle computer.  The computer somehow fuses whith Whitehall, making him, in effect, its human extension.  Aided by his inner ally, or 'angel' as he calls the computer, Whitehall now possesses unparalleled military genius [becoming the "General" of the title]. . . .  What ensues is a tale of nation building. . . . [where] nationhood . . . develops out of war."  As part of "the book's computer-centered theology[,] . . . computer components are treated like icons and amulets."  Rev. Gordon Satorius, SFRA Review #210, March/April 1994: 88, our source here and whom we quote.  CAUTION: Satorius warns of explicit violence and racism. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 18/I/93         Swanwick, Michael.  XXXXXXX: Morrow, 1991.  XXXXXX: Century 1992.  **¢+The premise of the novel includes that "All humanity on Earth has been swallowed up by a berserk" AI, and the existence of a Division of Technology transfer that holds down technological development.  Rev. Gregory Feeley, Foundation #55 (Summer 1992): 96-97, our source for this entry, and whom we quote.  {ANYONE KNOW THE TITLE HERE?  SORRY ABOUT THAT.}



3.  FICTION, Maly, 02/VII/02; RDE, 15/VIII/02 Sullivan, Tricia.  Someone to Watch Over Me.  New York: Bantam Spectra, 1997.  **¢+Cyberpunk novel with characters using new methods of Human Interface Technology: technology that allows users to share each other by accessing minds.  One character allows another to run his life; group subconscious connected through shared interfaces.  Rev. Greg Johnson, The New York Review of Science Fiction #121, 11.1 (September 1998): 21.  Cf. and contrast "SimStim" sequences in W. Gibson's Neuromancer and the "psi" motifs in J. Haldeman's Forever Peace; cf. and contrast the interfacing in the film Brainstorm (all listed under Fiction or Drama). 



3.  FICTION, DDB, 23/I/95        Swanick, Michael.  "Griffin's Egg."  © 1990; published UK, Random House UK.  The Year's Best Science Fiction: Tenth Annual Collection.  New York: St. Martin's, 1993.  **¢+Features nanotechnology in the form of chemical engines that invade the target organism and produce chemicals to cause schizophrenia. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 14/I/93         Temple, William F.  "Conditioned Reflex."  XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1951.  **¢+A Martian refugee reveals to two Terrans "that all Earth people are in fact robots, left behind when the Martians first explored Earth many millennia earlier."  The Martian robot returns to Mars, leaving behind a device for controlling robots.  Summarized by M. Ashley (20) in his ". . . Tribute to William F. Temple" (q.v. under Literary Criticism), our source for this citation and whom we quote. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 14/I/93         Temple, William F.  "The Green Car."  XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1957.  **¢+The car turns out to be a vehicle developed by an "intelligent underwater race" with "a technology which enabled them to reproduce the car into their own form of space ship" that allowed them to explore the world in the air.  Summarized by M. Ashley (21) in his ". . . Tribute to William F. Temple" (q.v. under Literary Criticism), our source for this citation and whom we quote. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/II/93        Thomas, Thomas T.  ME: A Novel of Self-Discovery.  New York: Baen, 1991.  **¢+Comic adventure novel featuring a computer.  ME is a "multiple entity," an AI system designed to infiltrate other AI systems.  ME has a built-in self-destruct phage and, to preserve itself, must "develop a new, useful function."  Rev. Jean Ciarrocca, SFRA Review #200 (Oct. 1992): 46-47, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 14/IX/95     Thomson, Amy.  Virtual Girl.  New York: Ace, 1993.  **+Female gendered robot comes of age and leaves her male maker.  See for allegory of raising of consciousness and ending dependency upon a man.  See also for a variation of what has been called (by Ron Goulart, we think), Spam!: i.e. robots' desiring to be human (like "Oreo" or "apple"; in this case, "metal on the outside, meat on the inside").  For the robot herself, cf. and contrast L. del Rey's "Helen O'Loy," and the robot Maria in Metropolis; for the robot's program feeling limited and trapped in cyberspace, cf. J. T. Sladek's The MŸller-Fokker Effect and contrast TRON and W. Gibson's Neuromancer series (all cited under Fiction or Drama).  



3. FICTION, RDE, 09/II/93 & 27/II/93   Varley, John.  Steel Beach.  New York: Putnam's, 1992.  "An Ace/Putnam Book."  **¢+Perhaps most usefully viewed as a sequel to R. A. Heinlein's The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress (q.v. this section), in dialog with Heinlein's political and social philosophy and with a number of other works dealing with human identity and immortality, AI, computer takeover, containment within computers, and computer insanity—from Kubrick and Clark's 2001 (see under Drama and Fiction) to W. Gibson's Neuromancer series (q.v. above).  Central to SB's story is the interface between the humans on Luna and the Luna Central Computer: a computer that is intelligent, conscious, self-aware, volitional, godlike in power, developing a subconscious, feelings, and emotions, and going crazy enough to have a deadly "evil twin" for part of its personality (457-64 and passim).   Rev. Arthur O. Lewis.  SFRA Review #201 (Nov. 1992): 60-61. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 08/II/93        Velde, Vivian Vande.  User Unfriendly.  San Diego: Harcourt, 1991.  "A Jane Yolen Book."  **¢+Near future, young-adult novel about computer-gamers "jacked directly into a computer, where, for an hour (which within the game seems like five days), they  move in a computer-generated world that seems utterly real."  The game they are supposed to be playing in the constructed Virtual Reality (VR) is a rather uninspired quest, but "fear not—this is a pirated computer game, absent a number of important safeguards."  Rev. Peter Lowentrout, SFRA Review #198 (June 1992): 76, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 08/II/93        ADD TO J. VINGE, SUMMER QUEEN: Rev. David Mead, SFRA Review #198 (June 1992): 69-70. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 21/X/93       von Harbou, Thea: alphabetized under Harbou, Thea von. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 27/III/95      ADD TO KURT VONNEGUT, SIRENS OF TITAN.  **¢+See under Drama, G. Stuart, The Sirens of Titan. 



3. FICTION, RDE, 26/IX/93      ADD TO WELLS, H.G., THE FIRST MEN IN THE MOON: See under Drama, First Men in the Moon. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 28/III/95      ADD TO H. G. WELLS, THE TIME MACHINE.  **¢+See under Drama, G. Cornelison's The Time Machine. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 17/V/01      Watson, Ian.  "Day Without Dad, A."  In New Worlds vol. 64, q.v. under Anthologies.  **¢+"It was a spin-off from the technology of pilots' helmets" in near-future planes flown "by thought and imagery": a machine that allows transfer of a dying person's mind or soul into the mind of a relative (232).  The story deals directly with the personal, and implies something about the social, implications of this technology. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           White, Mary Alice, Ph.D.  Land of the Possible; A Report of the First Visit to Prire.  New York: Warner, 1979.  **¢+Described by Sargent (1988) as a eutopia based on "Appropriate technology." 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Whiteford, Wynne.  Thor's Hammer.  St. Kilda, Victoria: Cory & Collins, 1983.  **¢+See for cyborgs.  Rev. Michael J. Tolley, FR, #70 (Aug. 1984): 31, our source for this entry. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 28/XII/95    Williams, Walter Jon.  Aristoi.  New York: Tor-Tom Doherty Associates, [1992].  **¢+Blurb on back jacket cover describes Aristoi as "the logical outgrowth of the world [WJW] . . . created in his novel HARDWIRED" (q.v. below), which is a legitimate reading of both novels.  Aristoi is set in a far-future, very high-tech., multi-planet (post)human, post-holocaust (of Earth1) world that is based on control of gravity, faster-than-light travel, nano technology, terraforming, VR, and instantaneous communication.  For almost everyone, the primary universe of the novel is a utopia.  It is, however, a utopia like that of Thomas More or, more directly, Plato: emphatically not a democracy, but a literal aristocracy: rule by the Best (aristoi), administered by the administrative class (therapones) all for the good of the People (demos).  The aristoi have brain implants, called "renos," and almost unlimited access to the VR of the oneirochronon (oneiros: dream, chronon: time), which allows full activity, including sex, in a tech.-mediated "dream-time."  Aristoi also have access to their daimones, independent parts of their personalities that can be invoked and used for multiple tasking.  An aristos "in" the oneirochronon, having one or more daimones taking care of business while the main personality engages in sex images a (post)human with a cybernetic device within, figuratively encompassed by a vast mechanism that contains dreams, demons, and whatever instinctive components we wish to assign to sex.  (Cf. and contrast F. Pohl's "Day Million," cited this section.)  The plot of the novel involves the discovery that rogue aristoi have set up what might be called more "natural" worlds, as alternatives to the utopia of the Logarchy (utopia as rule by the Word, discourse, science, law, reason).  Cf. and contrast A. Huxley's Brave New World: the "Grand Inquisitor Scene" between the Savage and the World Controller; the Savage could well speak for the rogue aristoi, the Controller for the orthodox. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 12/VI/96     Willis, Connie.  Remake.  1995.  Coll. Future Imperfect (Three Short Novels).  ISBN 1-56865-186-4.  Np: Guild Books, [1996].  "Published by arrangement with Bantam Books | A Division of Bantam Doubleday Dell."  S. F. Book Club book.  **¢+Hard S.F. love story set in a near-future Hollywood in which the (re)making of movies is a computer operation extrapolated from current techniques of computer graphics imaging (CGI) and VR.  The protagonist-narrator is a hacker: computer hacker, plus a hack film censor, working on a project removing all aural and visual references to addictive substances in films (primarily tobacco products and alcohol).  He is also the male lead in a plot combining very consciously and explicitly a number of movie clichŽs—as he goes after the woman he loves as she follows her dream of dancing in film musicals.  She eventually does dance in films, even though Hollywood musicals aren't made anymore.  How she manages it involves the possibility of time-travel, a futuristic form of public transportation, and (solving the mystery in the story) the transmission into the past of data (cf. and contrast Gregory Benford's Timescape [1980



3.  FICTION, RDE, 01/II/98       Wilson, Robin Scott.  "For a While There, Herbert Marcuse, I Thought You Were Maybe Right About Alienation and Eros."  S&SF, July 1972.  Those Who Can: A Science Fiction Reader.  RSW, ed.  New York: NAL, 1973.  **+Early computer-hacker story.  Harley Jacobs has a kind of mystic experience looking through the holes of a punched IBM card at a now neat, nicely geometrical world.  The vision leads to some illegal computer-record manipulation by Harley and a reconciliation between Harley Jacobs, very vulnerable and alienated flesh-and-blood human being, and "IBM card-Harley": Harley Jacobs as he exists on paper and stamped into IBM cards, and in what today we would call the virtual vorld or cyberspace of the computers of the nested bureaucracies encompassing Harley.  Only problem is that the lack of alienation destroys Harley's sex drive.  So "Slowly," and symbolically, and "not without considerable pain . . . Harley pushes a Venus No. 2 pencil through his favorite pair of IBM card holes.  What was square and simple becomes roughly round, enlarged, bordered with irregular torn blue fibers.  Thus spindled and violated, subsequently folded and mutilated"—against the instructions on all IBM cards of the period—"the card drops to the . . . floor, and Harley goes out into the night," to a renewed life of alienation and eros (Those Who Can 268-69). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/XII/94    Wu, William F.  Isaac Asimov's Robot's in Time: Dictator.  New York: A Byron Preiss Book, AvoNova, Avon Books, 1994.  ISAAC ASIMOV'S ROBOTS IN TIME #4.  **¢+Time-travel story with robot good guy leading humans to find an "errant robot."  Rev. Daryl F. Mallett, SFRA Review #209, Jan./Feb. 1994: 94, our source here, and whom we quote. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 30/I/00        Yeats, William Butler.  "Sailing to Byzantium."  1927.  © 1928 Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.  Frequently rpt., including The Norton Anthology of English Literature, volume 2.  We have used the Fourth Edition.  New York: Norton, 1979.  **¢+ If allowed "out of nature," the Speaker refuses for "bodily form [. . .] any natural thing" but would be re-embodied in "such a form" as the "Grecian goldsmiths" of old Byzantium might make, "Of hammered gold and gold enameling," of a mechanical bird.  David Daiches, the Norton ed. for the Modern section, calls attention to WBY's knowledge of the automata (our word) said to have been made for the Byzantine emperor, including "a tree made of gold and silver, and artificial birds that sang" (Norton Anthology 1977, note 4).  Daiches tells readers to compare also Hans Christian Andersen's Emperor's Nightingale, q.v., this section.  Note well Daiches's comment on the poem as a whole: "In his old age, the poet repudiates the world of biological change (of birth, growth, and death), putting behind him images of breeding and sensuality to turn to 'monuments of unaging intellect,' in a world of art and artifice outside of time" (1976, n. 1).  Later in the modern period, this preference of art/artifice over nature and biology will be more problematic. 



3.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Youngberry, Wayne.  The Pregnant Urban Guerilla. South Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan, 1983.  **¢+The hero, Hero Harry Hercules, exhibits a belief that everybody else is an android.  He then attempts to prove this hypothesis.  Cf. P. K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and R. Heinlein "They."  Rev. Michael J. Tolley, FR, #75 (Jan. 1985): 33, our source for this entry. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 20/VII/01    Zelazny, Roger.  "Auto-Da-FŽ."  Dangerous Visions.  Harlan Ellison, ed.  New York: Doubleday, 1967.  Coll. Last Defender of Camelot, see under Anthologies.  **¢+On a planet covered in metal, in the Plaza de Autos, to the cries of "Viva! El mechador!" Monolo Stillete Dos Muertos takes monkey wrench and long-handled screw driver in his hands and faces death from powerful cars opposing him in the ring.  Think Ernest Hemingway + Tom Lehrer; cf. and contrast auto works listed under Stephen King; see in Keyword Index "automobile," "car," "truck," "vehicle." 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 20/VII/01    Zelazny, Roger (as Harrison Denmark).  "The Stainless Steel Leech."  Amazing April 1963.  Coll. Last Defender of Camelot, see under Anthologies.  Rpt.  New Worlds of Fantasy No. 3.  Terry Carr, ed.  New York: Ace, 1971.  **¢+The stories of "the last man on earth" (told in flashback since he's dead), the last vampire (dying), and a narrator-protagonist who is a kind of robot vampire.  "The werebot is the most frightful legend whispered among the gleaming steel towers"; this werebot no longer has "a self-contained power unit, but the freak coils within" his "chest act as storage batteries.  They require frequent recharging, however, and there is only one way to do that" (Camelot 13).  The werebot's life, so to speak, is preserved when the dying vampire passes as a man long enough to order the 'bots arresting the werebot to arrest the capital "O" "Over, a large special-order 'bot" designed to catch the werebot.  At sundown, they "drive a stake through the Over's vite-box and bury him at the crossroads" (15).  Cf.  and contrast B. Aldiss's story "Who Can Replace a Man" (see above), and "The Honking" episode of Futurama, cited under Drama.  See also the Stainless Steel Rat stories of Harry Harrison (cited above). 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 20/VII/01    Zelazny, Roger.  "Passion Play."  Universe 5.  Terry Carr, ed.  New York: Random House, 1974.  Coll. Last Defender of Camelot, see under Anthologies.  **¢+After "the ancient masters" (humans) destroyed "themselves in a combat too mystical and holy for" their machine successors to comprehend, there are still "these ceremonies in commemoration of the Great Machine.  All the data was there: the books, the films, all; for us to find, study, learn, to know the sacred action" (Camelot 7).  The ceremonial "sacred action" is a car race narrated in the first person by the capital "C" Car or its robot driver that will sacrifice itself in a crash and burn accident.  Cf. the film A.I. and other stories of robot or more generally machine take-over after human extinction.  Cf. and contrast RZ's "Auto-Da-FŽ," cited above. 



3.  FICTION, RDE, 20/VII/01    Zelazny, Roger.  *ADD TO "Home Is the Hangman" CITATION: Coll. Last Defender of Camelot, see under Anthologies.  *¢+




4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Aldiss, Brian W.  "The Hand in the Jar: Metaphor in Wells and Huxley."  Foundation, No. 17 (Sept. 1979), pp. 26-31.  **¢+Comments briefly on the image of the young Selenites in The First Men in the Moon (1901), enclosed in jars, with only their forelimbs protruding; doesn't relate this motif to the bottled babies in Brave New World.



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Aldiss, Brian W.  Rev. The Magic that Works: John W. Campbell and the American Response to Technology (1993) by Albert I. Berger.  SFRA Review #207 (Sept./Oct. 1993): 27-29.  **¢+Argues that Berger's book is less about Campbell (or even Astounding) than about "the ideas and ideology which Campbell espoused, as measured against society's changing attitudes."  Berger sees Campbell's great accomplishment in the reconciliation of contradictory responses to technology: love or hate "ebullience and fear"—responses within the S.F. writing community, the USA, and the West at large.  Notes switch in Campbell's interests to parapsychology and the psi-power themes that led to the birth, in Astounding of L. Ron Hubbard's Dianetics.  See below, rev. of TMTW by G. Westfahl. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Alkon, Paul.  "Deua Ex Machina in William Gibson's Cyberpunk Trilogy."  Fiction 2000: Cyberpunk and the Future of Narrative.  George E. Slusser and Tom Shippey, eds.  Athens: U of Georgia P, 1992: 75-87. **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference.



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 17/V/04           Amis, Kingsley.  New Maps of Hell: A Survey of Science Fiction.  New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960.  New York: Arno, 1975.  **+Classic early work of SF history and criticism.  See for general background and for pithy discussion of some relevant works. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 14/I/93         Ashley, Mike.  "Tell Them I Meant Well: A Tribute to William F. Temple."  Foundation #55 (Summer 1992): 5-24.  **¢+Pages 20-21 include brief descriptions of Temple's "Conditioned Reflex" and "The Green Car" (q.v. under Fiction). 



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Benford, Greg.  "Time and Timescape."  SFS #57 = 20.2$$ (July 1992): 184-90.  **¢+GB connects his work on tachyons as a scientist with his fiction representation of the time paradox in Timescape (1980).  GB's scientific work is work in progress; in Timescape, the paradox is resolved in what the author links to emotions evoked by hard S.F., namely "awe and thinly veiled transcendence" (000-00)$$. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 11/VII/93      Asimov, Isaac.  "Intelligent Robots and Cybernetic Organisms."  In R. M. Allen's The Modular Man, q.v. under Fiction.  **¢+Esp. useful on the ethical (and political) questions raised by cyborgs and AI robots, including the question of when machines become human and humans becomes machines.  See also for prosthetics,

IA's "The Bicentennial Man" (303), and indirect commentary on Modular Man (esp. 303-06).  . 



Baccolini, Raffaella and Tom Moylan, eds.  Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination.  Listed under title. 


4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02          Benedikt, Michael, ed.  Cyberspace: First Steps.  Cambridge: MIT P, 1991. **+Cited in Brent Wood's "William S. Burroughs and the Language of Cyberpunk," q.v. under Literary Criticism. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Bengels, Barbara.  "'Read History'": Dehumanization in Karel Capek's[WEDGE ON C] R.U.R."  In TMG [13]-17.  **¢+Importance of history, esp. that of the "classical" period, for maintaining humanity, and for understanding R.U.R.



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 09/II/93        Beyond the Two Cultures: Essays on Science, Technology, and Literature.  Joseph W. Slade and Judith Laross Lee, eds.  Ames: Iowa State UP, 1991.  **¢+Includes a long section on "Literary Responses to Science and Technology": relevant here, "two essays on the 19th-century romantic [sic] critique of science, two on how contemporary fiction and literary theory have appropriated metaphors from modern physics, [and ] two on the use of the language and tropes of mechanization in modernist fiction and poetry."  Rev. Michael A. Morrison, SFRA Review #202 (Dec. 1992): 27-28, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 20/I/95        Booker, M. Keith.  The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism.  Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1994.  **¢+Rev. Arthur O. Lewis, SFRA Review #215 (Jan./Feb. 1995): 17-25, who calls the work "an excellent study of the dystopian implulse and its literary and social consequences," closely connected to the promise and threat of science and technology (17-18).  Reviews the intellectual background from F. Nietzsche and K. Marx through F. Jameson.  Gives a chapter each to A. Huxley's Brave New World, Y. Zamyatin's We, G. Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four; also covers B. F. Skinner's Walden Two, K. Vonnegut's Player Piano, R. Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, S. Delany's Triton, W. Gibson's Neuromancer trilogy, and other works of interest, including a significan chapter on "Postmodernism with a Russian Accent: The Contemporary Communist Dystopia" (Lewis 19-20). 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 20/I/95        Booker, M. Keith.  Dystopian Literature: A Theory and Research Guide.  Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1994.  **¢+Rev. Arthur O. Lewis, SFRA Review #215 (Jan./Feb. 1995): 17-25, who says that MKB covers well A. Huxley's Brave New World, Y. Zamyatin's We, G. Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four, M. Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale, H. G. Wells's When the Sleeper Wakes (q.v. under Fiction); K. Capek's R. U. R., Metropolis and some 13 other dystopian plays and 12 other dystopian films (23), putting them in the context of fairly recent intellectual history. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Bredhoft, Thomas A.  "The Gibson Continuum: Cyberspace and Gibson's Mervyn Kihn Stories."  SFS 22.2 (July 1995): 252-63. **+ **+Bredehoft allies with Gary Westfahl's assertion that NM relies on Gernsbackian paradigms while still being a futurist text.Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 03/V/95       Broderick, Damien.  "Allography and Allegory: Delany's SF."  Foundation 52 (Summer 1991): 30-42.  **¢+Primarily a  close reading of Delany's The Einstein Intersection (1967): a book "where the myths of us vanished humans, or our technologically advanced descendants, are being run like demented computer programs (under the aegis of an actual computer complex called PHAEDRA) in the life-narratives of the beings which have been drawn from the other side of the universe into our mysterious absence."  DB finds The Einstein Intersection "an allegory of reading—to be precise, of reading sf" but also "an enactment of Gšdelian undecidability [sic], recast as a scientific 'metaphysical blueprint'" (32, quoting Nicholas Maxwell).  CAUTION: Written in relatively simple High Theory, but still may be a problem for people without a background in recent philosophy. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 29/X/94       Bukatman, Scott.  Terminal Identity: The Virtual Subject in Postmodern Science Fiction.  Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1993.  **¢+"The cyborg is the culmination of Bukatman's central concern, which is the shift in our experiencing of our bodies in the light of our interactions with cybernetic systems"  (rev. Frances Bonner, Foundation #60 [Spring 1994]: 108-12; here quoting, 111).  Rev. J. Leonard, "Gravity's Rainbow," q.v. below, this section.  Fuller citation under Drama Criticism. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02          Cadora, Karen.  "Feminist Cyberpunk."  Science-Fiction Studies #67, 22.3 (Nov. 1995): 357-372.  **+Cyberpunk is not dead but a new "revolutionary blend" of the feminist variety has emerged. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 04/VI/02          Casimir, Viviane.  "Data and Dick's Deckard: Cyborg as Problematic Signifier."  **+ Cited under Drama.  See for P. K. Dick's Do Android's Dream of Electric Sheep?, q.v. under Fiction. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02; RDE 15/VIII/02        Cavallaro, Dani.  Cyberpunk and Cyberculture: Science Fiction and the Work of William Gibson.  London: Athlone Press, 2000.  **+Cavallaro maintains that cyberpunk is not deadbut perpetually supplementing itself.  DC here provides an overview of cyberpunk writing of the 1990's.  Aimed at students, at center is Gibson, but also includes other writers, and filmakers.  Rev. Douglas Barbour, SFRA Review #248, September/October 2000): 13-14.  Rev. Carl Freedman, SFS #82, 27.3 (November 2000): 520-526.



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Cherniavsky, Eva.  "(En)gendering Cyberspace in Neuromancer: Postmodern Subjectivity and Virtual Motherhood."  Genders 18 (Winter 1993): 32-46.  **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 11/VI/00          Chabot, C. Barry.  Writers for the Nation: American Literary Modernism.  Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1997.  **+See for discussion of modern technology as "the villain of the piece" in John Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath (214-16; ch. 6). 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Clark, Nigel.  "Rear-view Mirrorshades: The Recursive Generation of the Cyberbody."  Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. Mike Featherstone and Roger Burrows, eds.  London: SAGE, 1995.  113-34. **+ Cited in Ross Farnell's "Attempting Immortality: AI, A-Life, and the Posthuman in Greg Egan's Permutation City," q.v. under Fiction. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Colmer, John.  E. M. Forster: The Personal Voice.  Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975.  **¢+Has a section on "Machine Stops."



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 28/III/93       Conner, James A.  "Strategies for Hyperreal Travelers": Cited under Background. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Cowan, S. A.  "The Crystalline Center of Zamyatin's We."  Extrapolation 29 (Summer 1988): 160-78.  **¢+A study of the imagery of We, stressing "crystal or glass as the key symbol" in the book, the organizing image for a series of "images, objects qualities, states, and concepts" embodying Zamyatin's opposition of Energy and Entropy (161).



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 15/VIII/02        Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr.  "Antimancer: Cybernetics and Art in Gibson's Count Zero."  SFS #65 = 22.1 (March 1995): 63-86.   **+Second essay in a trilogy of essays beginning with IC-R's "Sentimental Futurist" essay, q.v. below (with the third essay on Mona Lisa Overdrive).  Claims that Count Zero fails as a "penance" or "antimancer" to Gibson's Neuromancer, because "Gibson's counterforce is too abstract and theoretical to affect the language of power that drives the action of both novels."



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 21/III/93       Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr.  "Postmodern Technoculture, or The Gordian Knot Revisited."  Rev. Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism by Frederic Jameson; Strange Weather[:] Culture, Science[,] and Technology in the Age of Limits by Andrew Ross; and Technoculture, Constance Penley and Andrew Ross, eds.  SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 4-3-410.  **¢+The books under review are listed by author under Fiction for Penley and Ross and Background for Jameson.  This is an important brief essay in itself making the point that "The fear of being considered latter-day Luddites or unhip in a technoculture may be leading many intelligent commentators to give up the ethical subject as historical agent a bit precipitously. . . .  If individual subjectivities are de-legitimized in favor of the cyborg, whose choices can never be pre-figured, who will choose how to change technological design to make it more democratic?  What will democracy be for?" (410).  See below, this section, J. Fekete rev. in SFS #58. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr.  "The Cyborg and the Kitchen Sink; or, The Salvation Story of No Salvation Story."  SFS #76, 25.3 (November 1998): 510-525.  **+ Discusses Haraway's Modest_Witness@Second_Millenium.FemaleMan_Meets OncoMouse in light of her previous work "Manifesto for Cyborgs"; MW takes Haraway's cyborg anthropology directly into these two dominant prosthetic systems of postmodernism: the Internet and the Human Genome Project.



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02, RDE, 15/VIII/02       Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr.  "The Sentimental Futurist: Cybernetics and Art in William Gibson's Neuromancer."  Critique 33.3 (Spring 1992): 221-40. **+ Thesis summarized by IC-R as "[É] Gibson's fiction returns continually to the question of how artists can represent the human condition in a world saturated by cybernetic technologies that not only undermine earlier ethical and aesthetic categories, but also collapse the distance between the sense of real social existence and science-fictional speculation.  The cyberspace novels' protagonists all work to restore value and meaning to their lives through technospheres that have appropriated the realm of transcendence.  In Neuromancer [É] every character is an artist or a work of art, for all are functional parts of a transcendentally evolving artistic  creation," including the AI's in M-F Tessier-Ashpool's "grand unified Artificial Intelligence, the consciousness of cyberspace."  Compares Neuromancer's "vision and style" to "Italian Futurism's image of futuristic technological  transcendence" and concludes the summary with "Hence, Neuromancer expresses a sentimental futurism" (headnote to IC-R's "Antimancer" essay, q.v. below, this section; 63, italics removed).  See above, "Antimancer."



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         The Cyborg Handbook.  Chris Hables gray, ed.  Brighton, NY: Routledge, 1995.  **+ Cited and annotated under Background.  See for P. K. Dick's "I Hope I Shall Arrive Soon" (1980) and a mixture of "theory, fiction [É] and scientifice documentation" (Neil Badmington rev., see main entry). 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 26/VI/04          Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination.  Raffaella Baccolini and Tom Moylan, eds.  New York and London: Routledge, 2003.  **+Mostly theory on the critical dystopia, with some attention to critical eutopias, with examples largely from US literary and film SF 1960-2000.  Immediately relevant discussions: David Seed on "Cyberpunk and Dystopia: Pat Cadigan's Networks," and the philosophical/political issues raised by Naomi Jacobs on "Posthuman Bodies and Agency in Octavia Butler's Xenogenesis": the organic intrusions upon the human body in the Xenogenesis series have important parallels with cyborg themes and larger questions of human autonomy/agency. 



4.  LIT CRT, TW, 13/I/95.  OMITABLE  Davenport, Basil.  Inquiry into Science Fiction.  New York: Longmans, Green, 1955.  **¢+Sees S.F. originating in Amazing Stories in 1926, and surveys the genre from then into the 1950s.  Significant as an early attempt to define "S.F." and state its characteristics.  Divides S.F. into "scientific" and "speculative" and presents a useful argument against the idea that S.F. (or at least SF—Speculative Fiction) is emotionless.  Interestingly, if incorrectly, predicts the decline of "hard" S.F.; correctly foresaw the rise of speculative S.F. and the blurring of SF and fantasy. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 10/I/93         Deery, June.  "Technology and Gender in Aldous Huxley's Alternative (?) Worlds."  Extrapolation 33.3 (Fall 1992): [258]-273.  **¢+On Huxley's Brave New World and Island (q.v.), plus Ape and Essence (1949).  The main point of the essay is summed up in the last sentence: ". . . for all his ability to think differently on the technological front, in the underlying sexual politics" of Huxley's eutopia and dystopias, "the more things change, the more they stay the same"—i.e., Huxley is not particularly interested in "the fate of women" (271), including ignoring "that technology often radically affects women's experience" in Huxley's SF (our term)  but appears to be controlled by men" (270).  Relevant here is JD's feminist analysis of Huxley's handling of science and technology.  JD sees Island as something of a corrective to the earlier works.  In Island, "technology is made for man, not vice versa" (000-00)$$.  Gender roles, however, continue to reflect the negative stereotypes of Huxley's own society. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Dennet, Daniel.  "Artificial Life as Philosophy."  Artificial Life: An Overview.  Christopher G. Langton, ed.  Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1995. 291-92. **+ Cited in R. Farnell's "Attempting Immortality" article, q.v. under Literary Criticism. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 21/III/93       Easterbrook, Neil.  "The Arc of Our Destruction: Reversal and Erasure in Cyberpunk."  SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 378-94.  **¢+In the debate on whether cyberpunk is radical and subversive or mostly conservative of "corporate culture," NE looks at the imagery and finds cyberpunk conservative.  Concentrates on W. Gibson's Neuromancer and B. Sterling's The Artificial Kid (both cited under Fiction).  Excellent comments on cyberspace, the image of the wasps' nest, the opening line of Neuromancer, and the ethical implications of the cyberpunk handling of technology and life within what we would call a corporate apparat (see 382-83).  Argues that there is "a neat reversal" in cyberpunk "of the natural/artificial opposition and an erasure implied by that reversal: advanced technology erases human morality. . . .  Logos is replaced by logo, an affirmation of great corporate houses that ushers in the inconsequence of individual will"—which NE regrets (394; Abstract).  Cf. and contrast R. Schmitt's "Mythology and Technology . . ." and J. G. Voller's "Neuromanticism . . . ," cited in this section. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 03/V/95       Ebert, Teresa L.  "The Convergence of Postmodern Innovative Fiction and Science Fiction: An Encounter with Samuel R. Delany's Technotopia."  Poetics Today 1.4 (1980): 91-95.  (May  be more pages.)**¢+Cited by Damien Broderick Foundation 52 (Summer 1991): 39. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Elkins, Charles.  "Asimov's 'Foundation' Novels: Historical Materialism Distorted into Cyclical Psychohistory."  Asimov.  Joseph D. Olander and Martin Harry Greenberg, eds.  New York: Taplinger, 1977, pp. 97-110.  **¢+See for the non-Marxist determinism of the Foundation trilogy: a determinism that reflects "the material and historical  situation out of which these works arose: the alienation of men and women in modern bourgeois society" (Isaac Asimov 109-10).



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 07/V/01           Ellison, Harlan.  "Introduction: The Universe According to Laumer."  In Nine by Laumer, q.v. under Anthologies and Collections.  **+HE usefully discusses Laumer's stories "The Walls" and "Cocoon" as thematically connected—"the same story told two different ways"—in giving "the ultimate horror of a computerized civilization, in which the individual becomes something akin to an automaton, or a mummy.  In 'Cocoon'  he has surrendered all volition to a life of sybaritic ease and sense pleasure [É]. *** In 'The Walls' an individual tries to fight the quagmire totality of the Systematized Culture, and makes a valiant effort [É] and in the end, when winning becomes impossible, flees to a refuge of madness."  HE considers chronologizing the stories with "Placement Test" some 75 years into our possible future, "The Walls" 100 years ahead, and "Cocoon" 200 years (xiii-xiv). 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, Maly, 27/VI/02 Erlich, Rich[ard D.].  "Approaching Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Bladerunner: Study Guide." SFRA Review #240 (June 1999): 7-8. **+ Annotated under Drama Criticism. 



4.  LitCrit., Maly, 27/VI/02; Erlich, 15/VIII/02     Erlich, Rich[ard D.]. "Approaching Neuromancer: Guide to Neuromancer." SFRA Review #238 (February 1999): 7-17.  Available through SFRA Review archives linked to <>; also available at least through 2006 at <>.  **+ A study guide for RDE's SF course at Miami University (Oxford, OH), featuring a list of Characters in the novel, an extensive "Word/Allusion List," "Rich Erlich On Plot, Story, World In Neuromancer," excerpts from the critics, a word or two on cyberpunk/pomo, especially in film, and then "Brute-Force Criticism": RDE moving through the novel, asking questions, doing close readings of small sections and trying to fit them into larger patterns—including noting additional allusions.