Richard D. Erlich

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CLOCKWORKS 2: An Annotated List of Works Useful for the Study of the Human/Machine Interface in SF—SUPPLEMENTAL




(Run off 22 August 2006)






4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Aldiss, Brian W.  "The Hand in the Jar: Metaphor in Wells and Huxley."  Foundation, No. 17 (Sept. 1979), pp. 26-31.  **¢+Comments briefly on the image of the young Selenites in The First Men in the Moon (1901), enclosed in jars, with only their forelimbs protruding; doesn't relate this motif to the bottled babies in Brave New World.



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Aldiss, Brian W.  Rev. The Magic that Works: John W. Campbell and the American Response to Technology (1993) by Albert I. Berger.  SFRA Review #207 (Sept./Oct. 1993): 27-29.  **¢+Argues that Berger's book is less about Campbell (or even Astounding) than about "the ideas and ideology which Campbell espoused, as measured against society's changing attitudes."  Berger sees Campbell's great accomplishment in the reconciliation of contradictory responses to technology: love or hate "ebullience and fear"—responses within the S.F. writing community, the USA, and the West at large.  Notes switch in Campbell's interests to parapsychology and the psi-power themes that led to the birth, in Astounding of L. Ron Hubbard's Dianetics.  See below, rev. of TMTW by G. Westfahl. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Alkon, Paul.  "Deua Ex Machina in William Gibson's Cyberpunk Trilogy."  Fiction 2000: Cyberpunk and the Future of Narrative.  George E. Slusser and Tom Shippey, eds.  Athens: U of Georgia P, 1992: 75-87. **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference.



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 17/V/04           Amis, Kingsley.  New Maps of Hell: A Survey of Science Fiction.  New York: Harcourt Brace, 1960.  New York: Arno, 1975.  **+Classic early work of SF history and criticism.  See for general background and for pithy discussion of some relevant works. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 14/I/93         Ashley, Mike.  "Tell Them I Meant Well: A Tribute to William F. Temple."  Foundation #55 (Summer 1992): 5-24.  **¢+Pages 20-21 include brief descriptions of Temple's "Conditioned Reflex" and "The Green Car" (q.v. under Fiction). 



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Benford, Greg.  "Time and Timescape."  SFS #57 = 20.2$$ (July 1992): 184-90.  **¢+GB connects his work on tachyons as a scientist with his fiction representation of the time paradox in Timescape (1980).  GB's scientific work is work in progress; in Timescape, the paradox is resolved in what the author links to emotions evoked by hard S.F., namely "awe and thinly veiled transcendence" (000-00)$$. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 11/VII/93      Asimov, Isaac.  "Intelligent Robots and Cybernetic Organisms."  In R. M. Allen's The Modular Man, q.v. under Fiction.  **¢+Esp. useful on the ethical (and political) questions raised by cyborgs and AI robots, including the question of when machines become human and humans becomes machines.  See also for prosthetics,

IA's "The Bicentennial Man" (303), and indirect commentary on Modular Man (esp. 303-06).  . 



Baccolini, Raffaella and Tom Moylan, eds.  Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination.  Listed under title. 


4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02          Benedikt, Michael, ed.  Cyberspace: First Steps.  Cambridge: MIT P, 1991. **+Cited in Brent Wood's "William S. Burroughs and the Language of Cyberpunk," q.v. under Literary Criticism. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Bengels, Barbara.  "'Read History'": Dehumanization in Karel Capek's[WEDGE ON C] R.U.R."  In TMG [13]-17.  **¢+Importance of history, esp. that of the "classical" period, for maintaining humanity, and for understanding R.U.R.



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 09/II/93        Beyond the Two Cultures: Essays on Science, Technology, and Literature.  Joseph W. Slade and Judith Laross Lee, eds.  Ames: Iowa State UP, 1991.  **¢+Includes a long section on "Literary Responses to Science and Technology": relevant here, "two essays on the 19th-century romantic [sic] critique of science, two on how contemporary fiction and literary theory have appropriated metaphors from modern physics, [and ] two on the use of the language and tropes of mechanization in modernist fiction and poetry."  Rev. Michael A. Morrison, SFRA Review #202 (Dec. 1992): 27-28, our source for this entry and whom we quote. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 20/I/95        Booker, M. Keith.  The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism.  Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1994.  **¢+Rev. Arthur O. Lewis, SFRA Review #215 (Jan./Feb. 1995): 17-25, who calls the work "an excellent study of the dystopian implulse and its literary and social consequences," closely connected to the promise and threat of science and technology (17-18).  Reviews the intellectual background from F. Nietzsche and K. Marx through F. Jameson.  Gives a chapter each to A. Huxley's Brave New World, Y. Zamyatin's We, G. Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four; also covers B. F. Skinner's Walden Two, K. Vonnegut's Player Piano, R. Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, S. Delany's Triton, W. Gibson's Neuromancer trilogy, and other works of interest, including a significan chapter on "Postmodernism with a Russian Accent: The Contemporary Communist Dystopia" (Lewis 19-20). 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 20/I/95        Booker, M. Keith.  Dystopian Literature: A Theory and Research Guide.  Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1994.  **¢+Rev. Arthur O. Lewis, SFRA Review #215 (Jan./Feb. 1995): 17-25, who says that MKB covers well A. Huxley's Brave New World, Y. Zamyatin's We, G. Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four, M. Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale, H. G. Wells's When the Sleeper Wakes (q.v. under Fiction); K. Capek's R. U. R., Metropolis and some 13 other dystopian plays and 12 other dystopian films (23), putting them in the context of fairly recent intellectual history. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Bredhoft, Thomas A.  "The Gibson Continuum: Cyberspace and Gibson's Mervyn Kihn Stories."  SFS 22.2 (July 1995): 252-63. **+ **+Bredehoft allies with Gary Westfahl's assertion that NM relies on Gernsbackian paradigms while still being a futurist text.Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 03/V/95       Broderick, Damien.  "Allography and Allegory: Delany's SF."  Foundation 52 (Summer 1991): 30-42.  **¢+Primarily a  close reading of Delany's The Einstein Intersection (1967): a book "where the myths of us vanished humans, or our technologically advanced descendants, are being run like demented computer programs (under the aegis of an actual computer complex called PHAEDRA) in the life-narratives of the beings which have been drawn from the other side of the universe into our mysterious absence."  DB finds The Einstein Intersection "an allegory of reading—to be precise, of reading sf" but also "an enactment of Gšdelian undecidability [sic], recast as a scientific 'metaphysical blueprint'" (32, quoting Nicholas Maxwell).  CAUTION: Written in relatively simple High Theory, but still may be a problem for people without a background in recent philosophy. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 29/X/94       Bukatman, Scott.  Terminal Identity: The Virtual Subject in Postmodern Science Fiction.  Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1993.  **¢+"The cyborg is the culmination of Bukatman's central concern, which is the shift in our experiencing of our bodies in the light of our interactions with cybernetic systems"  (rev. Frances Bonner, Foundation #60 [Spring 1994]: 108-12; here quoting, 111).  Rev. J. Leonard, "Gravity's Rainbow," q.v. below, this section.  Fuller citation under Drama Criticism. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02          Cadora, Karen.  "Feminist Cyberpunk."  Science-Fiction Studies #67, 22.3 (Nov. 1995): 357-372.  **+Cyberpunk is not dead but a new "revolutionary blend" of the feminist variety has emerged. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 04/VI/02          Casimir, Viviane.  "Data and Dick's Deckard: Cyborg as Problematic Signifier."  **+ Cited under Drama.  See for P. K. Dick's Do Android's Dream of Electric Sheep?, q.v. under Fiction. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02; RDE 15/VIII/02        Cavallaro, Dani.  Cyberpunk and Cyberculture: Science Fiction and the Work of William Gibson.  London: Athlone Press, 2000.  **+Cavallaro maintains that cyberpunk is not deadbut perpetually supplementing itself.  DC here provides an overview of cyberpunk writing of the 1990's.  Aimed at students, at center is Gibson, but also includes other writers, and filmakers.  Rev. Douglas Barbour, SFRA Review #248, September/October 2000): 13-14.  Rev. Carl Freedman, SFS #82, 27.3 (November 2000): 520-526.



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Cherniavsky, Eva.  "(En)gendering Cyberspace in Neuromancer: Postmodern Subjectivity and Virtual Motherhood."  Genders 18 (Winter 1993): 32-46.  **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 11/VI/00          Chabot, C. Barry.  Writers for the Nation: American Literary Modernism.  Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1997.  **+See for discussion of modern technology as "the villain of the piece" in John Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath (214-16; ch. 6). 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Clark, Nigel.  "Rear-view Mirrorshades: The Recursive Generation of the Cyberbody."  Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. Mike Featherstone and Roger Burrows, eds.  London: SAGE, 1995.  113-34. **+ Cited in Ross Farnell's "Attempting Immortality: AI, A-Life, and the Posthuman in Greg Egan's Permutation City," q.v. under Fiction. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Colmer, John.  E. M. Forster: The Personal Voice.  Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975.  **¢+Has a section on "Machine Stops."



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 28/III/93       Conner, James A.  "Strategies for Hyperreal Travelers": Cited under Background. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Cowan, S. A.  "The Crystalline Center of Zamyatin's We."  Extrapolation 29 (Summer 1988): 160-78.  **¢+A study of the imagery of We, stressing "crystal or glass as the key symbol" in the book, the organizing image for a series of "images, objects qualities, states, and concepts" embodying Zamyatin's opposition of Energy and Entropy (161).



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 15/VIII/02        Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr.  "Antimancer: Cybernetics and Art in Gibson's Count Zero."  SFS #65 = 22.1 (March 1995): 63-86.   **+Second essay in a trilogy of essays beginning with IC-R's "Sentimental Futurist" essay, q.v. below (with the third essay on Mona Lisa Overdrive).  Claims that Count Zero fails as a "penance" or "antimancer" to Gibson's Neuromancer, because "Gibson's counterforce is too abstract and theoretical to affect the language of power that drives the action of both novels."



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 21/III/93       Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr.  "Postmodern Technoculture, or The Gordian Knot Revisited."  Rev. Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism by Frederic Jameson; Strange Weather[:] Culture, Science[,] and Technology in the Age of Limits by Andrew Ross; and Technoculture, Constance Penley and Andrew Ross, eds.  SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 4-3-410.  **¢+The books under review are listed by author under Fiction for Penley and Ross and Background for Jameson.  This is an important brief essay in itself making the point that "The fear of being considered latter-day Luddites or unhip in a technoculture may be leading many intelligent commentators to give up the ethical subject as historical agent a bit precipitously. . . .  If individual subjectivities are de-legitimized in favor of the cyborg, whose choices can never be pre-figured, who will choose how to change technological design to make it more democratic?  What will democracy be for?" (410).  See below, this section, J. Fekete rev. in SFS #58. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr.  "The Cyborg and the Kitchen Sink; or, The Salvation Story of No Salvation Story."  SFS #76, 25.3 (November 1998): 510-525.  **+ Discusses Haraway's Modest_Witness@Second_Millenium.FemaleMan_Meets OncoMouse in light of her previous work "Manifesto for Cyborgs"; MW takes Haraway's cyborg anthropology directly into these two dominant prosthetic systems of postmodernism: the Internet and the Human Genome Project.



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02, RDE, 15/VIII/02       Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan, Jr.  "The Sentimental Futurist: Cybernetics and Art in William Gibson's Neuromancer."  Critique 33.3 (Spring 1992): 221-40. **+ Thesis summarized by IC-R as "[É] Gibson's fiction returns continually to the question of how artists can represent the human condition in a world saturated by cybernetic technologies that not only undermine earlier ethical and aesthetic categories, but also collapse the distance between the sense of real social existence and science-fictional speculation.  The cyberspace novels' protagonists all work to restore value and meaning to their lives through technospheres that have appropriated the realm of transcendence.  In Neuromancer [É] every character is an artist or a work of art, for all are functional parts of a transcendentally evolving artistic  creation," including the AI's in M-F Tessier-Ashpool's "grand unified Artificial Intelligence, the consciousness of cyberspace."  Compares Neuromancer's "vision and style" to "Italian Futurism's image of futuristic technological  transcendence" and concludes the summary with "Hence, Neuromancer expresses a sentimental futurism" (headnote to IC-R's "Antimancer" essay, q.v. below, this section; 63, italics removed).  See above, "Antimancer."



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         The Cyborg Handbook.  Chris Hables gray, ed.  Brighton, NY: Routledge, 1995.  **+ Cited and annotated under Background.  See for P. K. Dick's "I Hope I Shall Arrive Soon" (1980) and a mixture of "theory, fiction [É] and scientifice documentation" (Neil Badmington rev., see main entry). 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 26/VI/04          Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination.  Raffaella Baccolini and Tom Moylan, eds.  New York and London: Routledge, 2003.  **+Mostly theory on the critical dystopia, with some attention to critical eutopias, with examples largely from US literary and film SF 1960-2000.  Immediately relevant discussions: David Seed on "Cyberpunk and Dystopia: Pat Cadigan's Networks," and the philosophical/political issues raised by Naomi Jacobs on "Posthuman Bodies and Agency in Octavia Butler's Xenogenesis": the organic intrusions upon the human body in the Xenogenesis series have important parallels with cyborg themes and larger questions of human autonomy/agency. 



4.  LIT CRT, TW, 13/I/95.  OMITABLE  Davenport, Basil.  Inquiry into Science Fiction.  New York: Longmans, Green, 1955.  **¢+Sees S.F. originating in Amazing Stories in 1926, and surveys the genre from then into the 1950s.  Significant as an early attempt to define "S.F." and state its characteristics.  Divides S.F. into "scientific" and "speculative" and presents a useful argument against the idea that S.F. (or at least SF—Speculative Fiction) is emotionless.  Interestingly, if incorrectly, predicts the decline of "hard" S.F.; correctly foresaw the rise of speculative S.F. and the blurring of SF and fantasy. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 10/I/93         Deery, June.  "Technology and Gender in Aldous Huxley's Alternative (?) Worlds."  Extrapolation 33.3 (Fall 1992): [258]-273.  **¢+On Huxley's Brave New World and Island (q.v.), plus Ape and Essence (1949).  The main point of the essay is summed up in the last sentence: ". . . for all his ability to think differently on the technological front, in the underlying sexual politics" of Huxley's eutopia and dystopias, "the more things change, the more they stay the same"—i.e., Huxley is not particularly interested in "the fate of women" (271), including ignoring "that technology often radically affects women's experience" in Huxley's SF (our term)  but appears to be controlled by men" (270).  Relevant here is JD's feminist analysis of Huxley's handling of science and technology.  JD sees Island as something of a corrective to the earlier works.  In Island, "technology is made for man, not vice versa" (000-00)$$.  Gender roles, however, continue to reflect the negative stereotypes of Huxley's own society. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Dennet, Daniel.  "Artificial Life as Philosophy."  Artificial Life: An Overview.  Christopher G. Langton, ed.  Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1995. 291-92. **+ Cited in R. Farnell's "Attempting Immortality" article, q.v. under Literary Criticism. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 21/III/93       Easterbrook, Neil.  "The Arc of Our Destruction: Reversal and Erasure in Cyberpunk."  SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 378-94.  **¢+In the debate on whether cyberpunk is radical and subversive or mostly conservative of "corporate culture," NE looks at the imagery and finds cyberpunk conservative.  Concentrates on W. Gibson's Neuromancer and B. Sterling's The Artificial Kid (both cited under Fiction).  Excellent comments on cyberspace, the image of the wasps' nest, the opening line of Neuromancer, and the ethical implications of the cyberpunk handling of technology and life within what we would call a corporate apparat (see 382-83).  Argues that there is "a neat reversal" in cyberpunk "of the natural/artificial opposition and an erasure implied by that reversal: advanced technology erases human morality. . . .  Logos is replaced by logo, an affirmation of great corporate houses that ushers in the inconsequence of individual will"—which NE regrets (394; Abstract).  Cf. and contrast R. Schmitt's "Mythology and Technology . . ." and J. G. Voller's "Neuromanticism . . . ," cited in this section. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 03/V/95       Ebert, Teresa L.  "The Convergence of Postmodern Innovative Fiction and Science Fiction: An Encounter with Samuel R. Delany's Technotopia."  Poetics Today 1.4 (1980): 91-95.  (May  be more pages.)**¢+Cited by Damien Broderick Foundation 52 (Summer 1991): 39. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Elkins, Charles.  "Asimov's 'Foundation' Novels: Historical Materialism Distorted into Cyclical Psychohistory."  Asimov.  Joseph D. Olander and Martin Harry Greenberg, eds.  New York: Taplinger, 1977, pp. 97-110.  **¢+See for the non-Marxist determinism of the Foundation trilogy: a determinism that reflects "the material and historical  situation out of which these works arose: the alienation of men and women in modern bourgeois society" (Isaac Asimov 109-10).



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 07/V/01           Ellison, Harlan.  "Introduction: The Universe According to Laumer."  In Nine by Laumer, q.v. under Anthologies and Collections.  **+HE usefully discusses Laumer's stories "The Walls" and "Cocoon" as thematically connected—"the same story told two different ways"—in giving "the ultimate horror of a computerized civilization, in which the individual becomes something akin to an automaton, or a mummy.  In 'Cocoon'  he has surrendered all volition to a life of sybaritic ease and sense pleasure [É]. *** In 'The Walls' an individual tries to fight the quagmire totality of the Systematized Culture, and makes a valiant effort [É] and in the end, when winning becomes impossible, flees to a refuge of madness."  HE considers chronologizing the stories with "Placement Test" some 75 years into our possible future, "The Walls" 100 years ahead, and "Cocoon" 200 years (xiii-xiv). 



4.  LitCrit., Maly, 27/VI/02; Erlich, 15/VIII/02     Erlich, Rich[ard D.]. "Approaching Neuromancer: Guide to Neuromancer." SFRA Review #238 (February 1999): 7-17.  Available through SFRA Review archives linked to <>; also available at least through 2006 at <>.  **+ A study guide for RDE's SF course at Miami University (Oxford, OH), featuring a list of Characters in the novel, an extensive "Word/Allusion List," "Rich Erlich On Plot, Story, World In Neuromancer," excerpts from the critics, a word or two on cyberpunk/pomo, especially in film, and then "Brute-Force Criticism": RDE moving through the novel, asking questions, doing close readings of small sections and trying to fit them into larger patterns—including noting additional allusions. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, Maly, 27/VI/02 Erlich, Rich[ard D.].  "Approaching Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Bladerunner: Study Guide." SFRA Review #240 (June 1999): 7-8. **+ Annotated under Drama Criticism. 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 00/08/06   Erlich, Richard D.  "The Forever War (1972-75, 1975/76, 1997) and Forever Peace (1997): Haldeman's Variations on a Theme by Haldeman."  In Flashes of the Fantastic (Selected Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts).  David Ketterer, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004: 109-31; ch. 9.  **+Relevant here for discussion of Haldeman's debate with Haldeman on sources of human violence in our animal natures, the imposition of mechanism upon us, and/or our ability to cooperate (see beast/machine, see S. Sontag, "Imagination of Disaster," listed in Clockworks). 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02, RDE, 3.1.04 Farnell, Ross.  "Attempting Immortality: AI, A-Life, and the Posthuman in Greg Egan's Permutation City."  SFS #80 = 26.3 (November 1999): 000-000.  **+The essay argues that "the combination of 'hard' and 'metaphysical' sf in Greg Egan's Permutation City provides a unique exploration of digital modes of being and immortality."   Egan's "use of multiple paraspaces and subjective cosmologies challenges many assumptions regarding objectivity, the body, and identity, in a mediation of philosophy, theology, science, technology, and fantasy. [É] Juxtaposing AI Copies with evolved A-Life swarm-like entities, Egan explores the differences between these paradigms in the context of science fiction's quest to 'live forever'" (Abstract, available online as of August 2002 at <>.)  For swarms, see under Fiction, S. Lem's The Invincible and "The Upside Down Evolution"; see in Keyword Index, "Immortality." 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 21/III/93       Fekete, John.  "The Post-Liberal Mind/Body, Postmodern Fiction, and the Case of Cyberpunk SF."  Rev. Storming the Reality Studio . . ., Larry McCaffery, ed.  SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 395-403.  **¢+See below, this section for the book under review.  This is an important brief essay in itself, placing cyberpunk in its context of both current society and the history of SF (396-97), and bringing into the figurative lab much contemporary "LitCrit" (a term JF does not use) for quick analysis and evaluation (397-98)—and suggesting a pluralistic set of ways both postmodern literature and criticism might go (403).  See above in this section, the rev. by I. Csicsery-Ronay in SFS #58. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02        Fernbach, Amanda.  "The Fetishization in Science Fiction: The Cyborg and the Console Cowboy."  SFS #81, 27.2 (July 2000): 234-255.  **+Discusses the fetishization of masculinity in hypermasculine cyborgs and console cowboys.  In particular, points to Neuromancer and The Terminator (q.v. under Fiction and Drama) to show that technofetishes do not necessarily require the traditional phallic symbolism, but succeed with "castrated masculinity"; indeed, cyberpunk's fetishes, both masculine and feminine, challenge traditional signifiers.



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Ferrell, William R. III.  "Man and Machines: Two Visions of the Future."  Sixth Annual International Conference on Computers and the Humanities.  Sarah K. Burton and Douglas D. Short, eds.  Rockville: Computer Science P, 1983.  **¢+Cited in "Year's Scholarship": 1985, under H. G. Wells. 



4.  LitCrit,, Maly, 01/VII/02        Fiction 2000: Cyberpunk and the Future of Narrative.  George Slusser and Tom Shippey, eds.  Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1992.  **+ From the "Fiction 2000" Conference An introduction by GS, a list of contributors and an Index, and eighteen essays from <>.   Essays include Lewis Shirer's "Inside the Movement [É]" (a brief historical overview, with some cogent remarks on some important late 20th-c. narratives and some political commentary); Istvan Csicsery-Ranay, Jr.'s "Futuristic Flu [É]" (



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Fogg, Walter E. "Technology and Dystopia."  In Utopia/Dystopia?.  Peyton E. Richter, ed.  Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1975, pp. 59-73.  **¢+Cited by Sargent.



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 05/X/05           Franklin, H. Bruce.  War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination.  Primary citation under Background.  **¢+Backmatter includes a "Bibliography of Fiction Discussed," providing a list of basic texts of fiction in English (almost all American) dealing with "The Superweapon."  For among other works, see WS for appearances of the superweapon in the fiction or speculation of Robert Fulton (ch. 1); future-war fantasies 1880-1917 (ch. 2); Thomas Alva Edison as writer, media star, and fictional character (ch. 3, "[É] the Industrialization of War"); K. Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five and Joseph Heller's Catch-22, nuclear apocalypse fiction such as Nevil Shute's On the Beach, Peter George's Red Alert, M. Roshwald's Level 7, Pat Frank's Alas, Babylon (ch. 7); works on atomic weapons long or well before 1945, esp. H. G.  Wells's The World Set Free (1913-14), Pierrepont B. Noyes's The Pallid Giant (1927), Carl W. Spohr's The Final War (1932), and R. A. Heinlein's "Solution Unsatisfactory" (1941) (ch. 8, "[É] It's Only Science Fiction"); and in such canonical works as Theodore Sturgeon's "Thunder and Roses," William Tenn's "Brooklyn Project," Judith Merril's "That Only a Mother" (ch. 13). See under Drama Criticism citation to WS for relevant films, and to complete our suggestion of the depth and breadth of HBF's coverage of the interplay of art, life, and death in the production of a continuing threat to the survival of H. sapiens.  Rev. Charles Elkins, "Searching for the Exploding Grail," SFS #50 = 17.1 (March 1990): 103-11. 



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Gordon, Andrew.  "Posthuman Identity Crisis."  SFS #61 = 20.3 (Nov. 1992): 444-48.  **¢+Largely an enthusiastic rev. of Scott Bukatman's Terminal Identity: The Virtual Subject in Postmodern Science Fiction (1993; q.v. this section).  GA focuses on the invisibility of contemporary electronic technology and its impact on society—the invisibility making it "increasingly difficulty to separate the human from the technological."  Bukatman examines both written and filmed SF, connecting both to significant theoretical concerns raised by postmodern philosophers and literary theorists.  The key function of S.F. is "to narrate the new subject of virtual identity." As of early 2004 on the WWW at <http://<>.



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 21/III/93       Grant, Glen.  "Transcendence through Detournement in William Gibson's Neuromancer."  SFS #XX, 17.Y (March 1990): **¢+



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 28/III/93       Grace, Dominick M.  "Rereading Lester del Rey's 'Helen O'Loy."  SFS #59, 20.1 (March 1993): 45-51.  **¢+Intriguing attempt to rehabilitate "Helen O'Loy" by looking carefully at the first-person participant narrator (Phil) and the other male protagonist (Dave).  Concludes that the story "undercuts the rosy idea of Helen's perfection held by Dave and Phil, and offers instead a critique of their idealization of their walking, talking doll. . . .  'Helen O'Loy' is a story that condemns, rather than consecrates, male stereotypes of women" (49).  Definitely a dissenting opinion, but one future writers on the story really should deal with. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02        Grassian, Daniel.  "Discovering the Machine in You: The Literary, Social and Religious Implications of Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash."  JFA 12.3: 250-267.  **+Dissects the "Metaverse" virtual landscape of Stephenson's Snow Crash and its impact on the characters' mechanically infrastructured minds.  Looks at Stephenson as the first American author to use a shared virtual reality space (see Fiction for Snow Crash). 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Hamburg, Victoria.  "The King of Cyberpunk." Interview 19 (January 1989): 84-86, 91-92. **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Harper, Leanne C. "The Culture of Cyberspace: An Interview with William Gibson." Bloomsbury Review 8.5 (September/October 1988): 16-17, 30. **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Hayles, N. Katherine.  "Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers." October 66 (1993): 69-91.  On line as of Aug. 2002: <>. Try also <>.



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Hellekson, Karen.  "Transforming the Subject: Humanity, the Body, and Posthumanism."  SFRA Review #251 (March/April 2001): 3-7.  **+Posthumanism, stemming from postmodernism, calls into question what it means to be human—an analysis that is easily extended to gender.  It is inherent within posthumanism that gender is only a cultural construction; argues cyberpunk is pothumanist and defines itself in (Jacques) Derridean terms of deconstruction.



4.  LitCrit, RDE (IAFA ListServ), 14/VIII/02        Higley, Sarah L.  "The Legend of the Learned Man's Android."   Retelling Tales: Essays in Honor of Russell Peck.  Ed. Thomas Hahn and Alan Lupack.  Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1997.  **+



4.  LitCrit, RDE (IAFA ListServ), 14/VIII/02        Higley, Sarah L.  "Alien Intellect and the Roboticization of the Scientist."  Camera Obscura: Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies 40-41 (DATE): .  I've been working on turning these essays into a longer study on the myth of the robot. **+



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 30/X/94       Hoppenstand, Gary.  "Robots of the Past: Fitz-James O'Brien's 'The Wondersmith.'"  JPC 27.4 (Spring 1994): 13-30.  **¢+Argues that "O'Brien's 'The Wondersmith' is the first literary link to be found in America with regards to the robot motif, and . .  this contribution alone establishes his importance in the history of American fiction" (27).  Also relates story to Frankenstein and work of E.T.A. Hoffmann. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 28/III/93       Hassler, Donald M.  Isaac Asimov: ADD Rev. Alan C. Elms, SFS #59, 20.1 (March 1993): 118-19. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Hassler, Donald M.  "What the Machine Teaches: Walter Tevis's Mockingbird.  In TMG [75]-82.  **¢+On the dystopian, emotion-managing world and "'the Frankenstein complex,'" in James Gunn's phrase, in Mockingbird.



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Jarzebski[, UNDER e], Jerzy.  "Stanislaw Lem, Rationalist and Visionary."  Franz Rottensteiner, trans.  SFS, 4 (July 1977), pp. 110-26.  **¢+A survey of Lem's works, most immediately useful for its aid with bibliography.  Note 1 on pp. 124-25 is a brief list by SFS ed., R. D. Mullen of U.S. edns. of Lem's works through 1976.  The article's text refers to many relevant works by Lem that, in time, should appear in English.



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 04/VIII/95    Jones, Steve.  "Hyper-punk: Cyberpunk and Information Technology."  JPC 28.2 (Fall 1994): 81-92.  **¢+On "cyberpunk ideology" (81) as seen in rock music, a beer commercial, and, pre-eminently, the fiction of William Gibson—and postmodern Theory.  "Meaning must shift because there is no room for it in cyberspace; there is room only for information.  With meaning, representation and ideology involved, information count not be quantified—in cyberspace there is room only for a one or a zero, a yes or a no, binary code.  /  But cyberpunk is not meaningless.  Cyberpunks control the screen and thereby control the creation of meaning from information . . ." (87).  "Yet the irony and power of cyberpunk is in its rhetoric of decentralization, of freedom.  Cyberpunk relies on the abstract codification of signs, on the separation of meaning from information, to create an environment saturated with possible meanings, ones that can be chosen at random.  Cyberpunk's possibilities remain open primarily because signifiers that appear on the screen (cyberspace) constitute a hypertext.  What is more important is that the representation of the future not only 'forecloses options and possibilities' but also inserts a way of knowing, an ideology, based on information consumption via computer networks and mass media.  The parallels we draw between machines and living things strongly color our understanding of the world" (89). 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Kaveny, P.E.  "From Pessimism to Sentimentality: Do Androids Dream É becomes Blade Runner."  Patterns of the Fantastic II. Donald Hassler, ed.  Mercer Island, WA: Starmont, 1985. **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Blade Runner: Bibliographies," q.v. under Reference. 

4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02          Murray, Janet.  Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. NY: Free Press, 1997.  **+



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 28/III/93       Kelly, Robert T.  "A Maze of Twisty Little Passages, All Alike: Aesthetics and Teleology in Interactive Computer Fictional Environments":  Cited below, under Background. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 30/XII/94     Kroker, Arthur.  Spasm: Virtual Reality, Android Music[,] and Elecrtic Flesh.  New York: St. Martin's, 1993(?).  **¢+Rev. J. Leonard, "Gravitiy's Rainbow," q.v. below, this section. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 30/XII/94     Leonard, John.  "Gravity's Rainbow."  The Nation 257.16 (15 Nov. 1993): 580, 582-88.  **¢+Review article of five books of interest, with allusions to a number of other works, adding up to a knowledgeable attack from the political Left against postmodernism ("pomo") generally, and even its cyberpunk incarnation—but mostly against "pomo" in academic criticism as a substitute for political action: "When was this meeting where they voted out existential humanism and voted in pomo?  Why wasn't I invited?" (588).  Books rev. are Virtual Light by W. Gibson, Snow Crash by N. Stephenson, Synners by P. Cadigan (novels cited under Fiction); Spasm . . . by Arthur Kroker, and Terminal Identity by S. Bukatman (criticism cited in this section).  Excellent survey of cyberpunk for "intermediary" and advanced students of the subject.  CAUTION: Written in an anti-postmodern version of what has been called in 19th-c. literature "the Spasmodic style."



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 14/I/93         Lyall, Francis.  "Law in Science Fiction: An Introduction."  Foundation #55 (Summer 1992): 43-57.  **¢+Briefly describes and discusses several relevant themes and stories.  Themes: "Technical developments" in trial procedures in SF (46-47), a complex cyborg as a judge of "Trials" (48), and computers as "Judges" (49—the quoted words and phrases are FL's section titles).  Relevant fiction includes Frederik Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth's Gladiator at Law (1955), with its wired-for-sound judge and electronic jury; Alfred Bester's The Demolished Man (1953), with "Old Man Mose": the "Mosaic Multiplex Prosecution Computer"; H. Beam Piper's  Little Fuzzy (1962) and Anne McCaffrey's Killishandra (1985), with their electronic truth detectors and just possibly in Killishandra, computer judge and "Judicial Monitor" (cf. truth detector in K. Vonnegut's Player Piano, listed under Fiction); and Robert A. Heinlein's Have Space Suit, Will Travel (1958), for a judge FL describes as "part machine a part a synergistic combination of representatives of many of the races of the Three Galaxies" (48). 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 28/III/99          Manuel, Paul Christopher.  "'In Every Revolution, There Is One Man with a Vision': The Governments of the Future in Comparative Perspective.  In Political Science Fiction.  Donald M. Hassler and Clyde Wilcox, eds.  Columbia, SC: U of South Carolina P, 1997.  Ch. 11.  **+A systematic and, apparently, exhaustive survey of types of governments in the Star Trek universe.  Relevant here is the "interesting twist to the classic humanoid closed hegemonic regime model, . . . dominated by sophisticated machines are/or by computer": regimes "characterized by the machine/computer domination of the organic body" (190).  Discusses briefly the Computer-Dominated Closed Hegemonies among the Borg and Binars and on other worlds.  See for the Star Trek episodes "Q Who?", "The Best of Both Worlds, Parts I and II," "11001001," "Return of the Archons," and "For the World Is Hollow, and I Have Touched the Sky" (called "For the Earth Is Hollow" by PCM).  All these episodes are cited above, under Drama. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 09/II/93; 21/III/93—ADD TO 4.147   McCaffery, Larry, ed.  Storming the Reality Studio: A Casebook of Cyberpunk and Postmodern Science Fiction.  Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1991.  **¢REVISE 1ST S. TO READ, "A revised version of MR47/48 (q.v. above) that shortens some sections and expands others (enlarging the volume and refocussing it toward criticism and the postmodern), plus . . .and AN ANNOTATED list . . . .  Rev. Joseph M. Dudley, SFRA Review #199 (July/August 1992): 46-48.  Rev. in detail and depth by John Fekete, SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 395-403; see Fekete (399-401) for an analysis of SRS vs. MR47/48; see Fekete entry above. 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 18/III/01          Melley, Timothy.  Empire of Conspiracy: The Culture of Paranoia in Postwar America.  Ithaca, Cornell UP, 2000.  **+An important work we cite under Literary Criticism, Film Criticism, and Background.  The war referred to in the (publisher's) title is World War II, and "America" = USA + Canada.  EoC deals with "agency panic": the fear that one is not an agent in the sense of Çautonomous actor, choosing significant actionsÈ but in the sense of "factor"—an agent of the will of persons or forces outside oneself (as with someone in S. Milgram's "agentic state."  See Milgram's Obedience to Authority 9under Background); also note relevance for such classic take-over stories as R. A. Heinlein's The Puppet Masters (1951), with the motif mechanized in K. Vonnegut's Sirens of Titan (1959, q.v. under Fiction) and William Cameron Menzies's Invaders from Mars (1953, listed under Drama).  See EoC ch. 3 for surveillance and discussion of body and disembodiment in the work of Margaret Atwood and others.  See also for William S. Burrough's Soft Machine, Ticket that Exploded, and some essays in The Adding Machine; Don DeLillo's Libra and White Noise{CHANGE TO ITAL. IF OUTTAKE NOT RESTORED}; P. K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep; William Gibson's Neuromancer; Joseph Heller's Catch-22 and Something Happened; Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest; Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow (underlined works listed under Fiction).  EoC is very useful for imagery of containment within machines and systems, so see also for E. M. Forster's "The Machine Stops"—a pre-World War I British work TM does not discuss—and its literary and film progeny.  See esp. "Epilogue" (185-202) for the Cyberpunks and, indirectly, the possibility of a straight-line connection from Foster's "Machine Stops" (¤ III) to "the Mayan control machine" of W. Burrough's Soft Machine (SM 95) to the job of Case in Neuromancer (EoC 192).  EoC can profitably be put into dialog with other works.  For some, but not much, exculpation of K. Kesey et al. on TM's legitimate charge of misogyny in feminizing entrapping system, see theory of all things Other as feminine to a male Self, summarized in Linda Bamber's Comic Women, Tragic Men: A Study of Gender and Genre in Shakespeare  (Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1982).  For an epitomizing moment in an SF/Utopian work of some of TM's concerns, see K. Vonnegut's Player Piano (q.v. under Fiction), ch. 30, on Alfy Tucci: "Lasher smiled sadly.  'The great American individual [É].  Thinks he's the embodiment of liberal thought throughout the ages.  Stands on his own two feet, by God, alone and motionless.  He'd make a good lamp post, if he'd weather better and didn't have to eat" (281-82).  Also note Vonnegut's Paul Proteus in Player Piano on "The main business of humanity" as "to do a good job being human beings" and "not to  serve as appendages to machines, institutions, and systems" (297; ch. 31). 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 17/IX/00          Morris, David.  The Masks of Lucifer.  **+Cited under Background. 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 31/V/99           Morton, Oliver.  "In Pursuit of Infinity."  For a discussion of I. Asimov's Foundation series, see under Background.



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Munson, Ronald.  "The Clockwork Future: Dystopia, Social Planning, and Freedom."  In Ecology and Quality of Life.  Sylvan J. Kaplan and Elaine Kivy-Rosenbert, eds.  Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1974, pp. 26-38.  **¢+Cited by Sargent.



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Myers, Alan.  "Zamyatin in Newcastle."  Foundation #59 (Autumn 1993): 70-78.  **¢+Analyzes two short novels—Islanders and A Fisher of Men by Y. Zamiatin, seeing both as based on Zamiatin's two years during World War I spent in Newcastle (UK) supervising the construction of Russian icebreakers.  Both novels satirize English social and economic life, and are prototypes for Zamiatin's most famous work, We (q.v. under Fiction).  Shipbuilding techniques from this era influenced Zamiatin's subsequent critiques of the "scientific management" theories known as Taylorism.  See "scientific management" in Clockworks Keyword Index; see in this section A. Aldridge's "Origins of Dystopia," G. Beauchamp's "Man as Robot," and C. H. Rhodes's "Frederick Winslow Taylor's System of Scientific Management." 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Nicholas, Joseph, and Judith Hanna.  "William Gibson: Interview." Interzone 13 (Autumn 1985): 17-18. **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 09/II/93        Olsen, Lance.  William Gibson.  Mercer Island, WA: Starmont, 1992.  **¢+Overview of Gibson's work, with concentration on the Burning Chrome collection, Neuromancer and Count Zero.  Rev. Michael M. Levy, SFRA Review #202 (Dec. 1992): 22-23.  Rev. Carol McGuirk, SFS #59, 20.1 (March 1993): 114-16, our sources for this entry. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly/RDE, 02/VII/02, Aug02             Olsen, Lance.  "The Shadow Spirit in William Gibson's Matrix Trilogy."  Extrapolation 32.3 (Fall 1991): 278-89. **+Finds Gibson's "portrayal of the spiritual increasingly complex and contradictory" as the Neuromancer trilogy continues (281).  "Religion and technology, the spiritual and the material, are shown to be no more than games"—but important games: "voluntary activities that generate order and hence 'meaning' in limited environments.  Perhaps the gods are real"—and definitely Franois Lyotard is on to something significant in analyzing the interaction of language games in Just Gaming (282).  In its gender games, Neuromancer "is not so much underscoring discrete genders" in word choice and development of Case and Molly as presenting "a search for a union of opposites, for a final destruction of boundaries" (283).  Extending such games, the trilogy functions postmodernly "to destroy modern absolutist distinctions between terms like materialism and spiritualism and to reconstruct those terms in a new and more challenging conceptualization" (287).  Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Orr, Peter.  "William Gibson: Neuromantic."  Starlog 145 (August 1989): 41-44. **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 05/VI/99          Palumbo, Don.  "Asimov's Crusade Against Bigotry: The Persistence of Prejudice as a Fractal Motif in the Robot/Empire Metaseries."  JFA 10.1 (Winter 1998): 43-63.  **+Conclusively demonstrates and insightfully discusses prejudice as "a constant throughout the 22,000 years of future [human and robot] history chronicled in the metaseries"(45), including an occasional "pointed parallel between attitudes towards robots on [Asimov's future] Earth and the history of African-Americans" (48).   Deals with "The Bicentennial Man" and the works in the Robot and Empires series, including Caves of Steel, Naked Sun, and the Foundation books (see Asimov entry under Fiction). 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 03/II/93        Penley, Constance, and Andrew Ross, eds.  Technoculture.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1991.  **¢+According to Rob Latham, Technoculture looks in detail at some of the "underground" manifestations of "'technofuturism'" that AR deals with in Strange Weather (q.v. below): e.g., Mark Pauline's Survival Research Laboratories performance art exhibitions (our phrase, for lack of a better), and the theorizing of Donna Haraway, who is interviewed in this volume (see her "Manifesto for Cyborgs," cited under Background).  Rev. with other works on "Cultural Studies and Science Fiction," SFRA Review #198 (June 1992): 20-21, our initial source here and whom we quote.  Rev. I. Csicsery-Ronay, SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 403-410, cited separately under the reviewer's name, above in this section. 



4.  LitCrit., Maly, 27/VI/02         Post-Bodied and Post-Human Forms of Existence.  Mike Featherstone and Roger Burrows, eds.  Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 1995.  **+Collection contains 14 essays that are concerned with technological developments and post-human society; ranges from cyberlit to cyborg cinema.  Latham claims that the interdisciplinary focus is the volume's main strength and that it holds cyberpunk as a "new social theory."  Rev. Robert Latham, SFS #72, 24.2 (July 1997): 344-349.



4. LIT CRT, 25/VIII/92  Potter, Russell A.  "Edward Schizohands: The Postmodern Gothic Body."  Postmodern Culture 2.3 (May 1992).  SOURCE: <> computerized text, via John Krafft.  **¢+Neo-Freudian application of Gilles Deleuze and Feliz Guattari's Anti-Oedipus (trans. into English 1983) to Edward Scissorhands (1990), with especially interesting comments on hands. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Pringle, David.  "Neuromancer by William Gibson (1984)."  Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels.  David Pringle. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1985: 219-221.**+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 29/I/95        Rayner, Alice.  "Techno-Monsters: On the Edge of Humanity": Cited under Drama Criticism. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Robins, Kevin.  "Cyberspace and the World We Live In."  Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment.  Mike Featherstone and Roger Burrows, eds.  London: SAGE, 1995. 135-55. **+ Cited in R. Farnell's "Attempting Immortality" article, q.v. this section. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 07/I/93         Rose, Jonathan.  "The Invisible Sources of Nineteen Eighty-Four.  JPC 26.1 (Summer 1992): 93-107.  **¢+Literary sources of G. Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four in popular dystopias.  See esp. for Olaf Stapledon's Darkness and Light (London: Methuen, 1942), where "Each citizen ourside the ruling class has implanted in his skull a device that permits the police to read his thoughts and transmit propaganda directly to the brain (66-67).  The is cheap Buck Rogers stuff, too incredible to be really frightening.  Orwell made the some concept more plausible and (hence) much more terrifying with his telescreen, which was based on technology that already existed in 1948" (JR 96).  Note also discussion of bureaucracy generally and particularly in C. S. Lewis's That Hideous Strength (q.v. under Fiction). 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Rosenthal, Pam. "Jacked In: Fordism, Cyberpunk, Marxism." Socialist Review 21.1 (January/March 1991): 79-103. **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 03/II/93        Ross, Andrew.  Strange Weather: Culture, Science, and Technology in the Age of Limits.  New York: Routeledge, Verso, 1991.  **¢+According to Rob Latham, SW "examines various intellectual movements" visible in the 1980s to seek out traces of what AR calls "'the left tradition of technofuturism'" and saw in a tradition from Amazing Stories and, in William Gibson's phrase, "The Gernsback Continuum"—a tradition AR thinks "has gone underground, yielding the global survace to survivalist fantasies like cyberpunk."  Rev. of several books relevant for "Cultural Studies and Science Fiction," SFRA Review #198 (June 1992): here, 20-21.  See above, C. Penley and AR, eds.  SW also rev. I. Csicsery-Ronay, SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 403-410, cited separately under the reviewer's name, above in this section. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Ruddick, Nicholas.  "Putting the Bits Together: Information Theory, Neuromancer and Science Fiction."  Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts 3.4 (1994): 84-92.  **+Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 20/III/93       Schmitt, Ronald.  "Mythology and Technology: The Novels of William Gibson."  Extrapolation 34.1 (Spring 1993): 64-78.  **¢+An old-fashioned but important essay on Gibson's Neuromancer series, relating cycberpunk to punk rock music, and relating both to mythology, esp. such "specific mythological icons" as "the primitive warrior" (66-67 and passim).  See also for the combination of myth and technology as a "'litereralization' of Arthur Koestler's Ghost in the Machine (q.v. under background), and for cyberspace as the territory of "ghosts, demons and gods": i.e., "flatlined" cyberjocks, voodoo loa, and the AI's, respectively (68-69).  Deals indirectly with the themes of transformation (and containment) and directly with transfiguration (73 f. and passim), concluding that ". . . the advanced technology of Gibson's world, instead of making people into robots, has intensified and expanded the potential for the realization of our most primitive mythic desires.  Instead of desnsitization and uniformity we have transfiguration and [among the more extreme of Gibson's punks] disfiguration" (75).  Cf. and contrast J. G. Voller's "Neuromanticism . . ." and N. Easterbook's ". . . Reversal and Erasure in Cyberpunk," cited in this section. 



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Seed, David.  "Push-Button Holocaust: Mordecai Roshwald's Level 7."  Foundation #57 (Spring 1993): 68-86.  **¢+Detailed analysis of Roshwald's 1959 novel of nuclear apocalypse.  Argues that Level 7 compellingly combines the dystopian and future history genres, creating a work comparable to Y. Zamiatin's We, A. Huxley's Brave New World, and G. Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (q.v. under Fiction).  Roshwald, a political scientist born in Poland, presents complex philosophical and psychological insights in this study of authority and nuclear technologies set in an elaborate, futuristic military bomb facility, a world metaphorically and explicitly linked to the "structured levels of Dante's Inferno" and the seven levels of Hell in Jewish mythology (see M. Abrash's "Dante's Hell as an Ideal Mechanical Environment," cited this section).  Ends with a brief coda on Roshwald's second novel, A Small Armageddon (19962), which anticipates Dr. Strangelove's Jack D. Ripper as a madman who controls nuclear weapons. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 27/VI/02          Siivonen [sic: two "i's"], Timo.  "Cyborgs and Generic Oxymorons: The Body and Technology in William Gibson's Cyberspace Trilogy."  SFS #69, 23.2 (July 1996): 227-244.  **+The organic and technological worlds of Gibson's cyberspace trilogy coalesce as discursive spaces for Gibson.  Specifically, Gibson uses the oxymoron to produce meaning in his cyborg discourse.  See under Fiction, W. Gibson, Neuromancer, Count Zero, Mona Lisa Overdrive. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Spinrad, Norman.  "The Neuromantic Cyberpunks."  Science Fiction in the Real World.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1990. 109-21.  **+ Cited in T. Bredehoft's "The Gibson Continuum:" article, q.v., this section. 



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Sponsler, Claire.  "Beyond the Ruins: The Geopolitics of Urban Decay and Cybernetic Play."  SFS #60 = 20.2 (July 1993): 251-65.  **¢+CS examines a key legacy of 1980s cyberpunk literature: "the blighted urban landscape," whose apocalyptic decay is accepted by the authors as neither good nor evil.  Uses recent works (1989-91) by K. W. Jeter, Emme Bull, and Pat Cadigan (see Fiction listings) to argue for a less judgmental, esthetics-based reading of the "geopolitics of cyberpunk" along the lines presented by Brian McHale's Postmodern Fiction (1987).  The topographies of these cyberpunk works may resemble those of earlier post-holocaust narratives, but the attitude toward the destruction (in the cyberpunk works) is one of profound indifference—an indifference CS suggests we share while reading the works.  As of February 2004, abstract on WWW at <>.



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 02/VII/02         Sponsler, Claire. " Cyberpunk and the Dilemmas of Postmodern Narrative: The Example of William Gibson."  Contemporary Literature 33.4 (December 1992): 625-44.  **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Spinrad, Norman.  "On Books: Cyberpunk Revisited."  Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine 13.3 (1989): 175-90.  **¢+Cited by Gary K. Wolfe in "Science Fiction as Criticism," Extrapolation 30.4 (Winter 1989): 381. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Stevenson, Jennifer.  "Memory and the World of John Crowley: Technology and the Art of Memory."  The New York Review of Science Fiction #119, 10.11 (July 1998): 1;8-11.  **+ JS examines the works of John Crowley to compile a catalogue of sorts of the author's prevalent technological concern: mechanical memory vs. natural memory.  Includes "spy-bug" (see under Drama, The Matrix).  Crowley's work illustrates the limitations and benefits of natural and artificial memory systems, respectively.  Discusses data integrity; interior/exterior systems.  For an annotated biblio. see:<>.



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 21/III/93       Swirski, Peter.  "Stanislaw Lem: A Literary Movement Revisited."  SFS #58, 19.3 (Nov. 1992): 411-17.  **¢+Review of eight critical works on Lem, one in English and seven in Polish, with references to a number of other works by and about Lem. 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 21/III/93       Voller, Jack G.  "Neuromanticism: Cyberspace and the Sublime."  Extrapolation 34.1 (Spring 1993): 18-29.  **¢+Starts with the "profound indebtedness" of all SF, including cyberpunk, "to the Romantic/Gothic tradition" and then moves on to cyberspace as "an extension of and comment upon one of the most significant elements of Romantic aesthetics, the sublime" 18; cf. Lance Olsen on ". . . Gibson's Matrix Trilogy, cited above).  Edmund Burke (1759), linked sublimity and the infinite, arguing "that infinity 'has a tendency to fill the mind with that sort of delightful horror'" that attends the sublime; Burke's opponent, Richard Payne Knight (1808), associated the sublime with "'feelings of exultation and expansion of mind'"—but still "contributed significantly to a sublime of horror and emptiness" that is dominant in ideas of the sublime among the moderns.  Gibson's Neuromancer trilogy is "the next step in this aesthetic evolution, not only filling the void of the infinite with human constructs . . . but relocating infinity" from the "heavens" or the ever-receding horizon into the narrow "interface between human mind and computer technology.  Deals also with the voodoo gods (lao) in cyberspace.  Cf. and contrast R. Schmitt's "Mythology and Technology . . ." and N. Easterbook's ". . . Reversal and Erasure in Cyberpunk," cited in this section. 



4.  LitCrit, Maly, 01/VII/02         Wahl, Wendy.  "Bodies and Technologies: Dora, Neuromancer, and Strategies of Resistance."  Postmodern Culture 3.2 (January 1993). **+ Cited in Hal Hall's "Approaching Neuromancer: More Secondary Sources," q.v. under Reference. 



4.  CLOCKWORKS OUTTAKES           Warrick, Patricia S.  "Science Fiction in a Computers & Society Course."  Teaching Science Fiction: Education for Tomorrow.  Jack Williamson, ed.  Philadelphia: Owlswick, 1980.  **¢+Handles some S. F. works "featuring computers, computer technology, and the computerized society as potential aids to courses in Computers and Society."  Cited in "Year's Scholarship": 1980, which we quote. 



4.  LitCrit, RDE, 28/V/01           Wheat, Leonard F.  Kubrick's 2001: A Triple Allegory.  Lanham, MD: Scarecrow P, 2000.  **+Emphatically on the film, with only minimal reference to Clarke's novel.  The three allegories are "The Odysseus Allegory" (2001: A Space Odyssey), "The Man-Machine Symbiosis Allegory," and "The Zarathustra Allegory."  In the "Man-Machine" allegory, "The next species (after man) to evolve is humanoid machines, symbolized by Hal-Discovery.  Hal [É] is the spaceship's brain and central nervous system, a remarkably humanoid computer; Discovery is the suspiciously skeletal spaceship in whose skull-like head Hal is ensconced" (66 [although HAL's CPU is not in the section with artificial gravity—RDE]).  In the Friedrich Nietzschean allegory, Hal-Discovery is God, made, as Nietzsche insists in Also Sprach Zarathustra, by man in the image of man.  CAUTION: Triple Allegory is a provocative and often useful study but also an ingenious—which is not a compliment—and eccentric book.  LFW uses little of Clarke's canon and misses the relevance for 2001 of Clarke's Childhood's End (1953) and other works showing Clarke's combinations of hard science and mysticism.  LFW also had the opportunity to read but may miss the significance of Clarke's log for the making of 2001 in his Lost Worlds of 2001, and the Harvard Crimson's rev. of 2001 in J. Agel's The Making of Kubrick's 2001.  CAUTION: LFW missed or ignored Erlich's essay on 2001: "Strange Odyssey: From Dart to Ardrey to Kubrick and Clarke," Extrapolation 17 (1976): 118-24, and Erlich wrote this citation. 



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Westfahl, Gary.  "'The Closely Reasoned Technological Story': The Critical History of Hard Science Fiction."  SFS #60 = 20.2 (July 1992): 176-83.  **¢+GW locates the origin of the term "hard science fiction" in a 1957 book rev. by P. Schuyler Miller, and notes that it was used as slang, between quotation marks, until the 1970s.  Argues that there has been from the beginning, "two forms of hard SF": "microcosmic" hard S.F., i.e., cautiously extrapolated near-future, realistic space adventures, and more "extravagant stories of constructed worlds" (see 157).  A. C. Clarke's A Fall of Moondust (1961) cited as an example of the former, while his Childhood's End (1953) cited as an example of the latter (although we would think Clarke's City and the Stars [q.v. under fiction] would be a better example).  Argues finally that 1930s writers like H. Gernsback and J. W. Campbell could not meet the standards for scientific accuracy of truly hard S.F. (see below, this section, GW's "'This Unique Document'" and J. W. Campbell entries under Fiction). 

Abstract at:



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Westfahl, Gary.  Rev. The Magic that Works: John W. Campbell and the American Response to Technology (1993) by Albert I. Berger.  SFRA Review #207 (Sept./Oct. 1993): 29-31.  **¢+Complement to review by Brian W. Aldiss, cited above, this section.  Praises Berger for investigating US governments investigations of Campbell during World War II: hitherto classified documents reveal the depths of Campbell's prescience and the government's paranoia.  Disagrees with Aldiss in finding Berger's mixing biography and sociology unsuccessful, esp. since it turns Campbell into "an American avatar" of humanity's relationship with technology. 



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Westfahl, Gary.  "'This Unique Document': Hugo Gernsback's Ralph 124c41+ and the Genres of Science Fiction."  Extrapolation 35.2 (1994): 95-119.  **¢+GW conceded the novel's esthetic weaknesses but argues nonetheless that Ralph is "the one essential text for all studies of science fiction."  Gernsback uses no fewer than five generic science fiction models—melodramatic adventure, travel tale, Gothic novel, utopia, and satire—in this work.  All five models fail ruinously in Ralph but instructively.  Ralph "anticipates and incorporates" the tensions and themes of science fiction literature in the years following its serialization in Modern Electrics in 1911-12 (96).  Some of the tensions "illustrate Gernsback's dilemma in using melodrama," and some of the other genres, "as a model for science fiction: for in celebrating the value of science, Gernsback theory of science fiction promoted intellect over emotion; in depicting new inventions to replace manual labor, his theory advocated indirect action over direct action; and in supporting the scientific community, his theory favored the interests of an elite over those of the common man.  Yet melodrama was a form that was directly antithetical to all these concerns" (97).



4.  LIT CRT, TW, 13/I/95          Westfahl, Gary.  "The Words That Could Happen: Science Fiction Neologisms and the Creation of Future Worlds."  Extrapolation 34.3 (1993): 290-304.  **¢+Examines the function of neologisms in SF using eight texts as a data source, including novels or stories by I. Asimov, J. Brunner, J. Campbell, P. J. Farmer, H. Gernsback, W. Gibson, R. A. Heinlein, and B. Sterling.  Offers a predictive equation to cover SF neologisms: y = 40/x + 1/4, where x is the number of text pages and y is the average number of neologisms.  Concludes that the study of neologisms in SF may be a way to reorient critical discussion, necessarily including discussion of "hard" S.F. works of interest to users of this List. 



4.  LIT CRT, RDE, 01/XI/94      Willis, Martin T.  "Science Portraits in Magical Frames: The Construction of Preternatural Narrative in the Work of E. T. A. Hoffmann and Arthur Machen."  Extrapolation 35.3 (Fall 1994): [186]-200.  **¢+On Hoffmann's Der Automate (1814) and Machen's The Three Imposters (0000).   Argues that Hoffmann's automaton "presents a figure built on the principles of science but reflecting the composite world of magic and alchemy that governs it.  The spirit of the metals that comprise the inner workings of the Turk has been mystified by the narratives sorcery to create an inimized puppet . . . " (190), and that ". . . the entire structure of Der Automate is construed along the oppositions between science and magic, the explainable and the impossible" (192). 



4. LIT CRT, RDE, 28/III/93       Wolfe, Gary K.  "The Dawn Patrol: Sex, Technology, and Irony in Farmer and Ballard."  In State of the Fantastic—Studies in the Theory and Practice of Fantastic Literature and Film: Selected Essays from the Eleventh International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts.  Nicholas Ruddick, ed.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  Described by Arthur B. Evans as "a fascinating investigation" in the manner of Michel Foucault, of the "question of 'whether it is possible to construct a kind of pornography of the machine ... in which the encounter with the machine on its own terms is eroticized in a manner usually reserved for descriptions of sexual encounters' (163)."  State of the Fantastic rev. Evans, SFS #59, 20.1 (March 1993): 118-20, our source for this entry and whom we quote (120; unspaced dots represent ellipsis in Evans's quotation from GKW).  See under Fiction, the entries for P. J. Farmer and J. G. Ballard. 



4.  LIT CRT, RFS, 27/IV/95      Yale, Jeffrey.  "The Marginalised Short Stories of William Gibson: 'Hinterlands' and 'The Winter Market.'"  Foundation #58 (Summer 1993): 76-84.  **¢+Argues that Gibson's short fiction has been too readily dismissed or ignored by critics focusing on the cyberpunk novels, particularly Neuromancer.  Burning Chrome contains every story Gibson had written or collaborated upon up to 1986, many of which are neither stereotypical nor immature.  "Hinterlands" is a continuum-leaping space-travel story that concentrates not on the journey but the powerful impulse by the travelers to commit suicide upon their return to Earth.  "The Winter Market" tells the story of a deathly-ill artist kept alive in an exoskeleton.  Eventually, the artist has her personality encoded into a computer program, and thereby she achieves a bizarre form of immortality.  The technologies contained in Burning Chrome are "significant without being the foci that technologies often become in science fiction."