Annotated Bibliography


Allen, Camille A. (2001). The multigenre research paper: Voice, passion, and discovery in grades 4-6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Allen provides a detailed guide to teaching the mulitgenre process in upper elementary schools. She described her three-month collaboration with Laurie Swistaks, a fifth grade teacher committed to multigenre. She emphasizes allowing students to self-select their topic, introducing students to the library materials early in process, constant communication and revision, and student input on grading rubric. She also advocates the integration of art and oral presentation skills with the project. Allen’s group of fifth graders ended their multigenre journey with a “Multigenre Madness” evening where they shared their work with peers, family, and friends. She includes numerous examples of student writing, including two complete multigenre papers.

Allen, Camille, & Swistak, Laurie. (2004). Multigenre research: The power of choice and interpretation. Language Arts, 81, 223-232.

Allen, an education professor, and Swistak, a fifth grade teacher, explore the evolution of their highly successful joint multigenre research project. Allen’s pre-service education majors serve as mentors for Swistak’s students who create insightful multigenre projects and oral presentations that satisfy state and national language arts standards. The authors explain two important aspects of the project, selecting a subject and designing a blueprint. Allen and Swistak argue that for a student to fully engage in four months of research and writing, they must take interest in their subject and pleasure from the work. Their article offers numerous processes to help ensure students have picked a topic that will interest them throughout the project. Allen and Swistak have also re-envisioned their typical research paper section requirement. Realizing that students write to expectations rather than for critical examination, Allen and Swistak implemented the “Facts-Questions-Interpretations” (FQI) activity, which functions as a blueprint for students. They list facts, generate questions concerning their facts, and decide which genres help to answer their questions best. The FQI allows students to thoughtfully organize their projects and helps Swistak, Allen, and Allen’s pre-service students design and teach appropriate genre mini-lessons.

Allison, Leah. (2005). The multigenre approach and research skills: Spicing it up!. Library Media Connection, 23, 43-60.

Allison, a librarian and seventh grade research teacher at a private boys’ school, relates her successful implementation of the multigenre paper into the college prep curriculum. Teaming with social studies and computer teachers, Allison and her colleagues encouraged students to further explore countries that would be studied in the social studies classroom. Student eagerly experimented with a wide range of genres and created tri-fold boards to display their work to the school. Asking students to explain their genre decisions and participate in peer review allowed them to take ownership of their work. The majority of Allison’s students enjoyed the innovative, challenging project and crafted work that impressed both faculty and parents.

Bailey, N.M. & Carroll, K.M. (2010). Motivating Students' Research Skills and Interests through a Multimodal, Multigenre Research Project. English Journal, 99(6): 78-85.

This article explores the perspectives of teacher educator Nancy Bailey and high shool English teacher Kristen Carroll. Bailey is a researcher from Canisius College in Buffalo, New York and began studying Carroll's 9th grade English class. Carroll describes how she has involved multimodal and multigenre thinking in her classrooms. Carroll asks her students to define and reexamine what reading is. Soon as the beginning of the semester discussion of reading progresses, students start to view listening to music and watching movies as reading as well. Carroll further describes her students' development and motivation through learning about reading and semiotic analysis by using multigenre and multimodal outlets. She encourages them to view moods and tones of film and music as a form of symbols, which can be read. The 9th grade student's projects are based on using both lingual and non-lingual forms and to use the multimodal elements, such as expression, to share their projects in a multigenre fashion. Bailey gives a qualitative view of Carroll's classroom and her sociocultural approach to teaching. The outcome is a synopsis of students' motivation in research because they are expected to follow their own interests and use a variety of formats to create their questions and projects.

Bird, Jennifer L. (2004). My multigenre journey. In T Poetter, T. Goodney, & J. Bird (Eds.), Critical perspectives on the curriculum of teacher education (85-104). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Editor, author, and high school English teacher Jennifer Bird adopts a multigenre writing style to share successful teaching strategies from her first few years in a high school classroom and to illustrate the effectiveness of this creative writing approach. A former student of Tom Romano, Bird advocates the use of multigenre writing in the classroom but argues that students should first be instructed in the traditional five-paragraph essay. She hopes giving her students a foundation in the traditional prose style will encourage them to write both formally and creatively.

Blasingame, Jim, & Bushman, John H. (2005). The Multi-genre approach in writing. In Teaching writing in middle and secondary schools (pp. 59-70). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

University professors Blasingame and Bushman critique the traditional research paper and offer the multigenre paper as a creative alternative to meet language arts standards. The researchers introduce a five step process: “Introducing the Concept,” “Choosing a Topic,” “Recording the Experience,” “Investigating,” and “Writing and Making the Reading/Writing Connection.” This chapter offers helpful research ideas and genre tables for generating student brainstorming. An appendix to Teaching Writing in Middle and Secondary Schools (Appendix A) contains a sample multigenre paper and grading rubric.

Bowen, Barbara. (1991). A multi-genre approach to the art of the biographer. English Journal, 80 (4) 53-55.

Bowen discusses the power of multigenre writing for biographical research. Working with seniors in a vocational English class, she assigns the multigenre writing as a way to encourage students to find the art in biography and to approach biographies with different windows of insight. Students select subjects that they really want to learn about and keep research journals through the process. Their journals are for noting both research facts and their own feelings and impressions about their discoveries. Oral sharing of their projects throughout the creation process help students realize that they are learning and that what they are learning is interesting to others.

Cate, Timothy E. (2000). “This is cool!” Multigenre research reports. Social Studies, 91, (3), 137-140.

In an effort to blend the writing skills his ninth grade students were learning in his English classroom and the research and documentation skills he was teaching in his global studies class, Cate introduced his students to a multigenre project on Latin America. He provided a list of topics and required students to produce eight pieces on the topic. Students were also required to write a piece of explanation for each of their genres. Cate discovered that his students loved the alternative to traditional research. However, he found that some of his initial project criteria needed to be rethought. He finds that allowing students to choose their own topic produces more engagement with the project and that allowing excerpted material does not foster creativity.

Danielson, Kathy Everts & Harrington, Jeanne. (2005). From The Popcorn Book to Popcorn!: Multigenre children's books. Reading Horizons. 46 (1), 45-61.

This article is an excellent resource for teachers seeking to implement multigenre texts in the elementary classroom and to introduce their students to the concept of multigenre as opposed to straight expository or narrative writing. The authors show that multigenre texts are becoming increasingly popular, especially in children's literature. These texts act to introduce genre and can aide and compliment comprehension. Multigenre works create differentiated instruction and can support multiple reading strategies. The article provides an annotated bibliography for a sample of multigenre children's literature in addition to the above reasons for including multigenre in student learning.

Davis, Robert, Lovell, Tom, Pambrun, Jennifer, Scanlan, John, & hadle, Mark (1998). Multi-genre writing and state standards. Oregon English Journal, 20, 5-9.

Davis and his colleagues offer variations on the multigenre project in the high school classroom such as multigenre biographies, multigenre “ABC Books” (“The ABC Book is a project that has 26 pieces of writing, one for each letter of the alphabet”), and structured multigenre projects (students are assigned genres like “ ‘a pair of letters between two characters’ in a play” rather than being allowed to chose their own genres). The authors assert that multigenre writing assignments allow students to meet state language arts standards and can be tailored specifically to address the criterion. As Shadle and his colleagues relate, “Multigenre writing makes for work sample efficiency by allowing students to show proficiency in several modes and forms at once. Further, individual pieces and even whole projects can be used to demonstrate proficiency in conveying ideas; organizing writing; and using conventional grammar, usage, and spelling.” Furthermore, the educators propose that multigenre research topics can vary widely, allowing this project to fulfill standards and benchmarks for other subjects, such as history or science.

Davis, Robert, & Shadle, Mark. (2000). “Building a mystery”: Alternative research writing and the academic act of seeking. College Composition and Communication, 51, 417- 446.

Davis and Shadle, university English professors, begin their survey of alternative research writing techniques with a negative critique of the traditional academic research paper, which they describe as inherently flawed, a process that does “not mak[e] knowledge as much as report the known.” The authors suggest that teachers implement alternative writing techniques, such as “the argumentative research paper, the personal research paper, the research essay, and the multi-genre/media/disciplinary/cultural research paper” to awaken their students’ creativity and interest. As Davis and Shadle describe, “Multi-media research writing . . . [offers] a full world of expression and communication in which the visual arts, video, music, noise, textures, even smells and tastes work in complex relations with writing.” Examples of multi-media include: original paintings, photographs, drawings, perfume, music, videos, collages, and sculpture. Davis and Shadle discuss their use of the multigenre paper at the college level and the broadened scope of their students’ multi-autobiography projects.

Dickson, R., DeGraff, J., & Foard, M. (2002). Learning about self and others through multigenre research projects. English Journal, 92 (2), 82-90.

A team of ninth grade teachers worked together to replace the traditional research paper with a variety of more exciting options. Some students created screenplays, some wrote and performed monologues, and many chose to work on multigenre projects. Both the student and teacher responses to the multigenre project varied. The teachers found that teaching multigenre can be “messy,” but that the process is worth the work because it teaches students how to address real world issues in a variety of ways. The goal of the project should be to make students understand that the world is constantly connecting things that seem to have no connection and making meaning out of the connection. In order to help students who struggle with this idea, the teachers suggest sharing completed work of former students.

Dziedzic, Benjamin B. (2002). When multigenre meets multimedia: Reading films to understand books. English Journal, 92 (2), 69-75.

In an attempt to create an engaging and challenging elective course for seniors, Dziedzic created a course that used various literary genres and media to spark students understanding of how both the medium and genre of a text define how meaning will be created. The course focused on learning to read film, understanding how to interpret between texts, and writing across genres. Multigenre writing was used to emphasis the point that interpretation and critique come in varies forms. Students were required to write persuasive rejoinders, screenplays, film reviews, and analytical essays in the course.

Edgington, Bettye M. (2001). The multigenre research project. Writing and grammar: communication in action. Upper Saddle River, NJ: 2001.

Recognizing the value of the multigenre research project in the classroom, high school teacher Bettye Edgington created an easy to follow, informative introductory workbook for teachers about multigenre writing. Topics include: examples of student multigenre papers; tips for choosing topics; source criteria; directions for writing abstracts; tips for defining the project; and a bank of eighty-seven creative genres, such as “job application,” “clothing/costume design,” and “cookbook.” Other sections offer guidelines for biographical multigenre research projects and multigenre research projects on “real-life topics.” Edgington also provides a brief rubric for grading multigenre research projects and a multigenre bibliography. This how-to manual may be a helpful guide for teachers unfamiliar with the multigenre project.

Gaughan, John. (1998). From comfort zone to contact zone. English Journal, 87 (2), 36-43.

Gaughan writes of his classroom experience in the multigenre style. Through the use of many genres; including dialogue, letters, poems, lesson plans, and post-it notes, Gaughan discusses the idea of teaching outside the zone of comfort. He details his attempt to introduce the issues of violence, racism, and homosexuality in the classroom, and the student responses.

Gillespie, Joanne. (2005). “It would be fun to do again”: Multigenre responses to literature. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literary, 48, 678-684.

Secondary school English teacher Joanne Gillespie struggled to interest her students in Linda Sue Parks’ (2001) A Single Shard, a novel about Tree-ear, an orphan boy living in 12th-century Korea. After reading Tom Romano’s Blending Genre, Altering Style, Gillespie decided to implement the multigenre project in her seventh grade class’s study of the novel. After sharing her own multigenre paper, she brainstormed genres with her students. In the article, Gillespie shares a list of sixty-four genres supplied and utilized by her class. Gillespie required her students “to write at least 10 pieces in at least 7 different genres.” and found that the project inspired her students to study and engage personally with the text. “Empowered” by their sense of free choice, her students were more willing to reread the text for “clarification” and attempted to “[make] connections between their own lives and the text.”

Gillis, Candida. (2002). Multiple voices, multiple genres: Fiction for young adults. English Journal, 92, 52-59.

English professor Candida Gillis argues for the inclusion of multiple narrator and multigenre novels in young adult classrooms, as she believes these types of books reflect our reality where truth is not always clear-cut or easily accessible. Gillis recognizes that students need training to familiarize themselves with multigenre texts and provides activities to strengthen close, investigative reading. Furthermore, she maintains that, to understand a multigenre work, students must comprehend the contexts of its various genres. Her article advocates the use of multigenre novels to familiarize students with the multigenre writing style and briefly discusses the following multigenre works: Bel Kaufman’s Up the Down Staircase, Avi’s Nothing but the Truth, Virginia Walter’s Making Up Megaboy, and Todd Strasser’s Give a Boy a Gun .

Glasgow, Jacqueline N. (2002). Radical change in young adult literature informs the multigenre paper. English Journal, 92 (2), 41-49.

When looking for a way to teach the multigenre paper without relying heavily on experimentation, Glasgow found that the key to the project is making students familiar with various genres through reading and studying the writing of professionals. She suggests examining modern young adult novels that reflect Radical Change theory. These books tend to contain many voices and genres and are excellent examples for students who are trying to create their own multigenre work. As students read the changing form and formats, new perspectives, and changed boundaries that are in new young adult novels, they will begin to experiment with these same techniques and feel compelled to write well in a similar style.

Goldfinch, Ellen. (2003). A match made in heaven: The multigenre project marries imagination and research skills. Library Media Connection, 21 (7), 26-28.

Goldfinch, the librarian at Bishop’s College School in Quebec, Canada, collaborated with the school’s English and social science departments to create a multigenre project for the senior sociology class. The teachers at Bishop’s College School emphasized the importance of unifying the project with repetands between each genre and beginning the project with an opener that explains the students’ experience with the project. Goldfinch also found that creating an evaluation and grading rubric helps clarify and organize the project for the students. She provides an example of her evaluation rubric and recommends that teachers collaborate across disciplines with this rewarding approach to research writing.

Grierson, Sirpa. (1999). Circling through texts: Teaching research through multigenre writing. English Journal, 89, (1), 51-55.

After numerous years of using multigenre projects to replace the traditional research paper, Sirpa firmly believes that multigenre is both rich and workable. Sirpa has worked to incorporate her requirements for a term research paper into multigenre writing. She finds that requiring at least eight genres is appropriate, peer conferences are important to the projects development, and that a class-made rubric for grading is necessary to provide the students with clear expectations. She has also discovered that the real key to successful mutligenre work is getting students to invest themselves in the project. She does this by sharing projects from former students with her classes and has used writer and high school teacher Thomi Liebech as a guest speaker to share a mulitgenre piece of his own with the students.

Grierson, Sirpa. (2002). Exploring the past through multigenre writing. Language Arts, 80 (1), 51-59.

Grierson joined two sixth grade teachers, Amy Anson and Jacoy Baird, to explore how effective multigenre projects can be used with younger students. The project was assigned while reading The Devil’s Arthmetic, a powerful story about the importance of remembering the past. Students were to discover, research, and create original works about a personal ancestor who deserves to be remembered. Anson and Baird found that most students enjoyed the paper more than writing a traditional research paper, but discovered that younger students need to have more structure and guidance when working with the creative form of multigenre. In order to provide this guidance, they assigned a “Fact Sheet” with a list of basic questions that had to be answered about the ancestor, and “Rationale Cards” were assigned to help students record the genres they used and justify their choices. Also, in order to keep the students organized, the teachers posted a basic schedule of completion dates and handed out a rubric that would be used for assessing the final project.

Grierson, Sirpa. (2003). Through the lens of multigenre: Lessons in possibility. The English Record, 53 (1), 43-54.

Grierson recounts how she took a leap of faith after reading Tom Romano’s Writing WithPassion and began exploring the multitude of possible was to foster students’ writing. She found that multigenre research papers are fun, creative, and engaging for students, and that these papers an excellent way to meet the state curriculum standards and the national standards for English Language Arts. In order to meet these standards and ensure that the projects are challenging, Grierson starts by teaching her students to be critical readers. She then examines multigenre writing with her students, and studies genres. Once the students have a concrete understanding of critical reading and multigenre possibilities, the students dive into research and writing. Grierson provides examples of outstanding student projects, as well as student comments on the challenging, yet rewarding, nature of the multigenre research paper.

Hamblin, Lynda. (2000). Voices in the junior high school classroom: Lost and found. English Journal, 90 (1), 80-87.

Understanding that junior high school students have learned to conform to their teacher’s expectations and have lost their voice in five-paragraph essays, research papers, and book reports, Hamblin works with her students to rediscover their writing voice. Hamblin provides a nurturing environment that allows students to choose their own topics and write in a variety of styles. Throughout the year they write multigenre papers, do “read and retell” activities, practice letter writing, and work on poetry. The exploration of many genres helps the students become more comfortable with their writing, and better able to produce voice in their work.

Howdeshell, D. O.  (2007).  The color slides of writing:  Multigenre research in action.  North Carolina Middle School Journal, 22 (1), 1-6.

Diane Howdeshell, an eighth grade Language Arts teacher at North Davison Middle School in Lexington, N. C., advocates the power of multigenre writing in the Language Arts classroom.  Writing in many genres empowers students to strengthen their voices through experimentation with language and print/non-print texts, while making meaning, expanding their worldview, and embarking on “a golden opportunity for self-discovery” (p. 2).  Howdeshell educators must teach students that multigenre assignments are a holistic experience for the reader.  Each piece needs to stand on its own but also work with others to create a unified whole.  Multigenre writing experiences foster student pride in their work, while engaging adolescents in authentic student-centered writing and learning, which expands the “boundaries of themselves as writers, thinkers, researchers, and meaning-makers of their world” (p. 5).  The examples of two students’ writing illustrate not only these students’ pride, varied use of genre, and learning outcomes but also the impact of Howdeshell as a real teacher at work, striving to challenge her students with meaningful and thought provoking assignments.

Jacobs, Dale. (2004).The multigenre research project The explorer; 4:2
Available online at: http://cronus.uwindsor.ca/units/cfl/CFLchannel.nsf/9f82278ce80ea63385256dcd004335ef/382b4bc7bf8cd0f385256f41006a7aae/$FILE/v4n2.pdf

Jacobs, a professor who works with the Writing Across the Curriculum program at the University of Windsor, introduces the multigenre essay and compares it to a traditional research project.  He concludes that asking students to write in multiple genres compels them to think  in multiple ways. 
Because the writing is not aimed only at the teacher, students must think rhetorically about purpose, genre and audience.  Jacobs emphasizes that MGP writing not only teaches the subject matter studied, but also critical thinking about how genres communicate.  Students must decide why one genre might communicate meaning better than another genre.  In learning to support their choices, students become increasingly aware of the rhetorical choices they make each time they write.


Johnson, Cheryl, & Moneysmith, Jayne. Multigenre research: inquiring Voices. In The subject is research: Processes and Practices. Bishop, Wendy & Zemliansky, Pavel (eds.) (2001). Portsmouth,NH: Boyton/Cook Publishers.

Johnson and Moneysmith provide a detailed account of the multigenre research paper. By blending creativity with scholarly research, students can produce papers that are both enjoyable and informative. The mulitgenre research paper has the same goal of conveying a thesis statement, as a traditional research paper, but accomplishes the goal much differently than the traditional research paper. Detailed steps of how to write a multigenre research paper are provided. They begin with finding an issue to write about, and continue with steps to aid in research of topic, steps in developing a problematical research question, and ways of unifying the paper.

Johnson, Laura. (March 03, 2009) Out of Africa: a Multigenre Excursion. Associated Content. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1524971/out_of_africa_a_multigenre_excursion.html

Johnson thought multigenre projects would be a good tool to allow her fourth graders to learn to express their discoveries in a form that she hoped would allow the students’ developing writing voices to come through, increase student ownership of the topics, and encourage learning in greater depth than a traditional research project. Johnson also concluded the project assignment could ultimately lead to higher student confidence. She decided to try the students’ next research project (pertaining to African animals) as an MGP. She defined the term “multigenre” and began class-created genre bulletin board. She was concerned that the students would feel overwhelmed by the volume of work involved, but her concerns were quickly removed as she realized the kids were telling their friends about the project and were doing more than the required number of genres.

Kentucky Educational Television (Producer). (2004). Workshop 5: Teaching multigenre writing. In Write in the middle: A workshop for middle school teachers [Motion picture]. (Available from http://www.learner.org/channel/ workshops/middlewriting/).

Kentucky Educational Television’s Write in the Middle program offers an outstanding video workshop on multigenre writing, featuring Tom Romano and middle school teachers Laurie Swistak and Mary Cathryn Ricker. A great asset for those new to the multigenre style, the workshop shows Swistak and Ricker teaching multigenre writing in their English classrooms. As the teachers conduct their multigenre lessons, their students are full of energy and excitement, eager to learn, write, and share. Swistak clearly and expertly oversees her “Facts, Questions, and Interpretations” (FQI) activity with her happy and animated students. Using the FQI method, students research facts about their subjects, ask questions about those facts, and then choose a genre in which they can best answer their questions. Group work and class brainstorming helps the fifth graders understand and generate ideas for the project. Ricker, who teaches a majority of ESL students, praises the multigenre project for its diversity. She also believes that student choice promotes learning in multigenre research. Additionally, Tom Romano defines the multigenre style, offers examples of creative genres, and argues for the use of imagination in the retelling of historical and biographical events. An excellent resource for all who wish to see the multigenre project in action.

Kittle, Penny. (2008). Finding form for ideas: Blending genres. Write Beside Them. (pp. 159-173). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Penny Kittle starts with a one sentence summary of multigenre writing, asserting that it combines persuasion with narrative. However, she quickly admits writing multigenre papers is more complicated than this. What is important is that students find a form that best fits their ideas, though it means teachers have to "let go." Kittle gives three mistakes to avoid in mulitgenre in this chapter: narrow topic choice, trying to teach content through multigenre writing and narrowly defining the product. The chapter provides exemplary student work, including a multigenre project by "Logan" about bullying, which led to the revelation by the student that there are few organizations presenting effective measures to address bullying. Kittle also includes a humorous narrative about how she introduced multigenre to her classroom. In an attempt to give a subject for students to write on, Penny Kittle staged her arrest (for an unpaid speeding ticket!). After she revealed the act, she passed out index cards with genres on them for the students to write. This event, coupled with multigenre writing, really "woke" her class up (as can be expected!)

Kittle, Penny. (2005). Multigenre marriage. The Greatest Catch: A life in teaching. (pp. 99-104). Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Multigenre Marriage is an intriguing, heart-warming section of Penny Kittle's The Greatest Catch. In this passage, Kittle melds narrative with an experiential introspective look at the positives that come from the unity of multigenre, research, and writing. From Kittle's story of her husband, a chemical engineer, creating a multigenre "research" project on her for their 20th anniversary, the reader comes to an appreciation of the power of personal voice, infused with enlightening research, and joined with the diversity of genre. Kittle provides an example from her husband's project that was a "Recipe for Marriage." The section concludes with Kittle remarking on the energy and un-handcuffing power of multigenre, its ability to capture depth and personal experience, and most importantly, the power of sharing.

Larson, Sherri. (2008). Multigenre writing: and answer to many questions. Minnesota English journal . 44:1.
Available online at http://www.mcte.org/journal/mej08/Larson.pdf

Larson teaches tenth grade and was looking for a new way to energize her students. She found an answer in the multigenre research project described in Tom Romano’s Blending Genre, Altering Style (2000). Larson believes that MGP “capitalizes on student need for variety and recognizes new literacies” (181). What she wasn’t sure about was how to actually go about doing an MGP. To answer that question, she created her own MGP on writing MGP’s. She began with the question Michael Ondaatje (1970) reports asking himself as he began The Collected work of Billy the Kid, his multigenre novel. “How do I write this?” The answer seems to be “with a great deal of freedom and encouragement to creativity.” The bulk of Larson’s article is an MGP. She uses journal entries, assignments and lesson plans, lists, a recipe, an email from a parent, an obituary and other genres to explore that very question. Some pieces are from the perspective of a student, or a parent, and others are from the teacher’s perspective. Larson refers to her pieces as “true fiction” (182). They are created works some of which read like direct quotes or genuine copies of journals and emails.

LeNoir, David W. (2002). The multigenre warning label. English Journal, 92 (2), 99-101.

As a university instructor who has used multigenre assignments, LeNoir cautions that although multigenre projects are meant to be liberating and break the bonds of traditional expository prose, the multigenre project must still contain an element of unity. Multigenre projects are much more than a collection of unrelated works placed together in one package. He emphasizes that unity is the key element in conveying the author’s message to the reader and warns educators to spend time working with students to unify their multigenre work. There is nothing automatic about unity, but he suggests using a consistent structural arrangement to unify the multigenre text.

 Mack, Nancy. (2002). The ins, outs, and in-betweens of multigenre writing. English Journal, 92 (2), 91-98.

After three decades of teaching, Mack believes that writing must be both artful and skillful. Through the use of multigenre projects in a course about writing workshop pedagogy at Wright State University, Mack discovered that multigenre projects are the perfect way to merge the art and skill of writing. Her students prepared projects on the topic of folklore and used historical context and multiple perspectives in order to add to the depth and quality of the project. Through primary research from first person interviews and secondary research, the students were able to intertwine fact and fiction into a meaningful piece of work. Mack emphasizes the need for footnotes to document research and distinguish between fact and fiction. She also stresses the importance of unifying aspects of the project, such as an introductory piece and a table of contents for the project.

Menscher, W. (2004). Multigenre writing: A student’s perception. (Master’s Thesis ) Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ.
Available online at: http://ref.lib.rowan.edu/rowan_theses/RU2004/0107MULT.pdf

Menscher’s master’s thesis is a multigenre project evaluating, exploring and elaborating on his experiences with MGP as a college student. It is a student’s perspective, as opposed to a theorist’s or researcher’s perspective on multigenre research projects. While longer than most articles in this bibliography, Menscher’s thesis is engaging and reads quickly. It addresses his discovery that as a multigenre writer, genre selection is important—not just a personal preference but a matter of deliberate rhetorical selection. He puts forth the idea that learning comes from finding plausible ways to express something as much as from the research itself. Other factors he addresses include unifying the MGP, documenting sources, grading, and student passion. This thesis includes many multigenre elements, such as teacher interviews in four different genres, expository text and created “instant messenger” chats.

Moulton, Margaret R. “Cookie”. (1999). The multigenre paper: Increasing interest, motivation, and functionality in research. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 42 (7), 528-540.

Moulton, an instructor at the University of Nevada and nationally recognized consultant in adult literacy, introduced the idea of a multigenre paper to a class of fourteen undergraduate secondary English education majors enrolled in a course on teaching writing. The students began work on their own multigenre paper and found that the multigenre paper is an exciting and educational alternative to the traditional research paper. However, Moulton and her students initially encountered a lack of understanding of what the paper should actually be. Moulton’s criteria for the paper, appropriate genre ideas, and her student’s reactions to the project help aid others in implementation of a multigenre project.

Morgan, Katherine R. (2002). Mothers and daughters: Sharing our stories, sharing our lives. English Journal, 92 (2), 107-111.

Morgan teaches a women’s literature class for juniors in high school in a multigenre style. She has found that the multigenre approach is a way to engage students of all learning styles and to help them explore issues they feel passionate about. Morgan describes how she teaches a unit on mother-daughter relationships in a multigenre style. The students explore the historical view of motherhood through nonfiction texts, fictional stories, and poems. They also interview their own mother for a modern, first hand perspective of motherhood and examine their own role in mother-daughter relationships. She reflects that offering a “smorgasbord” of reading is the way to help students find the best way to think about a particular idea.

Meyer, Nathan J., & Munson, Bruce H. (2005). Personalizing and empowering environmental education through expressive writing. Journal Of Environmental Education, 36, 6-14.

University professors Meyer and Munson observe a contradiction in Environmental Education (EE). Though EE students often hold passionate beliefs concerning environmental causes, they often fail to realize their role in environmental problems. The two educators believed expressive writing, a multigenre Writing to Learn strategy that can incorporate such styles as “free verse, haiku, stage scripts, [and] bumper stickers,” would enable students to personalize their environmental concerns. To test their hypothesis, Meyer and Munson assigned an expressive writing assignment to an upper level education course (a requirement for elementary education and secondary social studies and science education). The students chose and researched an everyday activity, such as driving a car or drinking coffee, and then wrote a multigenre paper about its environmental consequences. Before and after the assignment, Meyer and Munson interviewed five students with strong environmental concerns and varied backgrounds with expressive writing. The study revealed that expressive writing did in fact encourage students to take ownership of their contribution to an environmental problem and work to modify their behavior.

Painter, Diane D. (2009). Providing differentiated learning experiences through multigenre projects. Intervention in School and Clinic , 44, 288—294 The online version of this article can be found at: http://isc.sagepub.com

Painter, a university researcher, relates the experiences of a sixth grade language arts teacher and a former special education teacher turned technology resource teacher. These two successfully experimented with using multigenre social studies projects, as a way to address the need for various levels of instruction in a classroom with a variety of students, including some with IEPs. Painter focuses on the teachers’ experiences in planning the assignment, addressing the differentiation of work levels more generally. For example, group assignments paired stronger students with more challenged peers. She discusses developing a guide sheet to keep students on track and clarify the project requirements. Painter includes a sample curricular map, rubric for a multigenre project, and a discussion on the success of the project, including examples of the types of genres students created. She concludes that the project “engaged all students, regardless of abilities.”

Rush, Leslie. (2009). Developing a story of theory and practice: Multigenre writing in English teacher education. The teacher educator,, 44:3, 204—216. Available online from:

Rush did a qualitative research study using focus groups and observational notes to examine multigenre projects written by pre-service English teachers. Specifically, her concern was that students understood their coursework to be either education theory or education methods, but there was a disconnect between the two types of information. Rush wanted the students to synthesize these “binary” elements. In her findings, Rush reports that initial student anxiety about ability to succeed tended to be related to “the challenge of the creative.” After students dug into the project, however, they began to enjoy it. Students consistently expanded the assignment and pushed the borders to include new and often more visual genres. Rush reports a consistent increase in the complexity and sophistication of students’ understanding and connection between theory and practice of teaching after completing the MGP assignment. These and other topics are discussed in depth in Rush’s article.

Putz, Melinda. (2006). A Teachers' Guide to the Multigenre Research Project.Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

High school teacher Melinda Putz’s thorough handbook is an excellent multigenre reference. Putz addresses the reader as a colleague and offers encouragement along with practical advice. This well-structured guide details the entire multigenre project from start to finish by including the following chapter topics: “Introducing the Project to Your Classes;” “The Research Process;” “Alternate Styles;” “Writing in Traditional Genres;” “Revision;” “Creating Unity and Cohesion in the Multigenre Project;” Evaluation; “The Thematic Readers’ Theatre;” “Rationale for Adopting the Multigenre Research Project;” and “A Multigenre Junk Drawer,” which includes a schedule, troubleshooting tips, and variations on the project. Putz’s variations include group multigenre projects and the multigenre museum, a way for students to display their work. As a teacher, Putz understands the time constraints of the profession and has organized her text to be clear and accessible. She provides informative and thought-provoking editable student handouts, which are also available for teacher use, along with student samples, on a CD that accompanies the text. Putz also recognizes a teacher’s need to conform to state and national standards, a concern that might discourage some from attempting the multigenre project. In the tenth chapter of her text, Putz meticulously details the national standards and the Michigan state benchmarks that the multigenre project fulfills, such as the “use [of] a variety of technological and informational resources” (national). Putz’s supportive text, with its helpful advice and valuable instructor resources is an outstanding guidebook for high school teachers beginning or continuing the multigenre journey.

Richison, J. D., Hernandez, A.C., & Carter, M. (2002). Blending multiple genres in theme baskets. English Journal, 92 (2), 76-81.

English teachers and teacher educators propose the use of theme baskets to aid in the reading of core literature. Theme baskets are a way of introducing many thematically linked texts from a variety of genres to help students improve comprehension. The baskets contain picture books, fiction and nonfiction chapter books, and high school age to adult pieces of literature. An example of the theme basket unit on Grapes of Wrath is provided to demonstrate exactly what a theme basket can be. By beginning with reading the picture books, students gain a basic understanding of a thematic element of the more complex books. By the time the students begin reading the more advanced literature, their basic knowledge of the theme is firm. This multigenre approach to reading transcends reading levels in the secondary classroom.

Rochwerger, Leonora, Peterson, Shelley Stagg, & Calovini, Theresa. (2006). Multigrenre lab reports: Connecting literacy and science. Science Scope, 29 (7), 26-29.

Bridging the gap between multigenre writing and science, this article shares observations made when middle school students communicate scientific findings in a multigenre lab report. The authors note a lack of student interest and feelings of frustration when they had to "write dry, boring lab reports" after engaging, enjoyable lab activities. The authors conclude, based on student response, that the students had a greater sense of achievement and actualization from the multigenre lab report. A rubric is included in the article.

Romano, Tom. (1990). The multigenre research paper: Melding fact, interpretation, and imagination. In Daiker, D. & Morenberg M. (Eds.) (1990). The writing teacher as researcher: Essays in the theory and practice of class-based research. (pp. 123-141). New Hampshire: Boyton/Cook Publishers.

Romano promotes the use of multiple genres when writing research papers. He describes his first attempt at the multigenre research paper with high school students and includes many of those student’s reactions to the process. He encourages teachers to respect individuality, risk-taking, and possibilities of perception in writing. In doing so, students will break free of conventional exposition and find passion for their topics through multigenre. Much of this piece appears in a chapter of Romano’s later work Writing With Passion: Life Stories, Multigenres.

Romano, Tom (1992). Multigenre research: One college senior. In D. Graves & B. Sunstein (Eds.), Portfolio portraits (pp 146-157). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

 Tom Romano recounts his experience advising a college senior, Meg, with her multigenre honors thesis project about English novelist Mary Shelley. Meg first wrote a multigenre paper on Shelley and then demonstrated her learning process through a portfolio of her work. Romano details Meg’s writing process, noting her extensive research, dialogue with peers and her advisor, and the freedom she enjoyed working in multiple genres. Romano expresses the importance of his role as guide, both to Meg and to his personal understanding of the multigenre portfolio. As an advisor, Romano acted as sounding board, counselor, encourager, and interviewer. He stresses the importance of the post-project interview, which validates student work and allows for deeper processing. Romano suggests asking students to consider pieces they did not include in their portfolio, as this often reveals their vision for the project. As a result of his post-project interview with Meg, Romano decided to add an “unsatisfactory pieces” section to his future portfolio assignments. Of their importance, Romano relates, “The stories of these ‘failed pieces revealed so much about Meg as a thinker and writer.”

Romano, Tom. (1995). Writing with passion: Life stories, multiple genres. Portsmouth, NH: Boyton/Cook.

Reflecting on his own experiences as a teacher, a learner, a father, and a son, Romano encourages teachers to go beyond the basics of teaching and try new ways of getting students excited about writing. Two chapters are dedicated to the idea of the multigenre research paper. The first describes Romano’s inspiration for the multigenre paper, Michael Ondaatje’s The Collected Works of Billy the Kid, and his first year of teaching multigenre to high school students. Numerous excerpts from student’s papers are included. The second chapter discusses various problems that arise when working with the multigenre research paper. Romano describes how he encountered problems with appropriate language usage, documentation, and grading. Ways to overcome these issues, including Romano’s own grading scale, are included.

Romano, Tom. (2000). Blending genre, altering style: Writing multigenre papers. Portsmouth, NH: Boyton/Cook.

In the first book to address ways of implementing multigenre projects in the classroom, Romano explains the unique process and invaluable rewards of creating multigenre. Romano discusses various genres, subgenres, and writing techniques for creating multigenre papers and provides numerous examples of student’s work. Five complete multigenre papers are included to demonstrate the enormous power of multigenre and the multitude of benefits from teaching and writing in the style.

Romano, Tom. (2002). Teaching writing through multigenre papers. In Tremmel, R., & Broz, W. (Eds.). (2002). Teaching writing teachers of high school English and first year composition. (pp 53-65). New Hampshire: Boyton/Cook Publishers.

Romano descries his approach to teaching writing to students studying to be integrated language arts teachers in middle and high schools. Romano uses a required two-week experience observing in area schools as a starting point for teaching the multigenre style of writing. While students are observing at the schools, they keep a field notebook and record indelible moments, interesting aspects of school culture, and feelings about the experience. They then take those notes and write a short multigenre paper that prepares them for a more intense multigenre project later in the semester. This later project can be written about any topic the student is passionate about. During the multigenre writing process, each student is required to teach the class a lesson that deals with writing and that can be applied to the multigenre projects the class is working on. This method gives students the chance to both teach and write. The end result is teachers who know how to both create and teach the multigenre project.

Romano, T. (2007).  The many ways of multigenre.  In 21st Century Writing: New Directions for Secondary Classrooms and Teaching the Neglected 'R'(pp. 87-102)(Eds.) Thomas Newkirk and Richard Kent. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Tom Romano’s passion for teaching, writing, and multigenre is evident from the onset of this piece.  He explains his first experience with multigenre as a reader and his subsequent attempts to incorporate this notion as a research paper assignment in both high school and college classrooms.  Romano’s enthusiastic voice guides educators through the origins of multigenre writing as well as his own processes concerning the structure/requirements of his multigenre research assignments.  Romano explains the importance of the “Research Design” in order to “thwart that blackguard, Procrastination” (p. 7), which helps both writers and him, as the teacher, become invested in their work.  Romano describes several lesson plans that enable students to think outside of the box and create unity within their work.  Most important to Romano’s discussion is the impact that multigenre has on students.  These assignments hold “promise for students’ learning, expression, and creativity” (p. 14), while addressing any number of student benchmarks and standards. 

Ruggieri, Colleen A. ( 2002). Multigenre, multiple intelligences, and transcendentalism. English Journal, 92, (2), 60-68.

Believing that it is a mistake to teach students that there is only one way to solve a problem, Ruggieri decided to bring multigenre and multiple intelligence learning into her unit on Transcendentalism. She began by using comics and music that deliver the same messages about individualism and the environment that Transcendentalist authors do. She also incorporated free reading time of multiple genres of books and journaling into the unit. Toward the end of the unit, students learned about multiple intelligences and participated in a variety of activities to help them understand their own intelligence style. They then chose a project that fit into their strongest area of intelligence, collaborated with the teacher to make an individual rubric, and produced a project that they enjoyed working on and could feel proud of.

Shafer, Gregory. (1999). Re-envisioning research. English Journal, 89 (1), 45-50.

Believing that the traditional research paper marginalizes students by failing to value their lives, interests, and cultures, Shafer helps his students re-envision the research process and connect it with their lives. His students avoid the traditional fact finding and note taking process method. They learn that research does not have to be found in the library. Instead, they discover the many genres of research, including interviews, visiting interesting places, and people watching. They create a paper with a thesis that is important to them and to the culture that they live in, and build upon that thesis through nontraditional research methods.

Slack, Delane Bender. (2001). Fusing social justice with multigenre writing. English Journal, 90 (6), 62-66.

In an effort to bring the ideas of equality, empathy, and optimism into the classroom, Slack introduced a multigenre project that focused on social justice to her eighth grade class. The students picked a movement, defined as a group of individuals who came together and created change, and created a multigenre paper and presentation. Slack repeatedly conferenced with students to assist them in creating an important recurring detail in the paper and to help them think of the paper as one entity. Students chose from 16 different genre styles for the paper and were required to perform a three-part presentation in front of the class. The presentation began with a two-minute factual speech, followed by original poem, and then a third aspect of their choosing. Slack found that her students felt passionate about their chosen topics and that fusing social justice and multigenre is an excellent way to teach the ideas of equality, empathy, and optimism.

Soul, Karen C. (2002). Multi-genre case studies. In E. M. Mirochnik & D. C. Sherman (Eds.), Passion and pedagogy: Relation, creation, and transformation in teaching (pp. 401-418). New York: Peter Lang.

Written as a multigenre essay, middle school teacher Karen Soul offers the case study as a new application for the multigenre style. Soul explains that writing about her students in genres like poetry and prose allows her to see them clearer and understand their lives better. She finds multigenre case studies especially helpful when reflecting on students who struggle with issues of poverty and neglect. Soul’s work in multigenre case studies has allowed her to prevent crisis situations with troubled kids; develop her curriculum to best meet the intellectual, emotional, and learning style needs of her students; and mature as a writer.

Suskind, Dorothy. (2007). To grow what you know, expand how you show: Graduate students explore multigenre. Social Studies Research and Practice. 2 (3), 403-418.

Suskind uses the multigenre research project to impart a wealth of skills upon her pre-service, graduate student teachers in her Constructivist and Developmental Teaching class, including skills like inquiry, technology, assessment, and critical positioning. She found her students discovered how to create a grander conversation with culture and citizenship that extends beyond recitation. The multigenre project also showed future teachers the positives of "authentic assessment" and critically minded students. Suskind provides her method to introducing multigenre, a class constructed rubric and an example of student work on the genocide in Rwanda, which included a stream of conscious piece about dying and two poems comparing the past and present of Rwanda personified.

Tremmel, Michelle. (2003). Genre theory, narrative theory, and assumptions about multigenre writing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Michigan State University.

In her dissertation Tremmel examines the concept of multigenre through recent genre theories like M.M Bakhtin’s theories of language and literature. Through the lenses of these theories, she analyzes student writing. Tremmel found that intertextuality, multivocality, and multigenerity are not exclusive to multigenre writing. The study suggests that the traditional style may contain as many varieties of styles and voices as multigenre writing. In addition, Tremmel suggests that putting traditional writing and multigenre writing at odds does not teach students the complexities of writing.

Youngs, S. & Barone, D. (2008). Writing Without Boundaries: What’s Possible When Students Combine Genres. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

Youngs and Barone, two university professors, share their practical tips about helping elementary age students write multigenre papers. Youngs and Barone show evidence that multigenre writing can work with younger students and also provide teachers with step-by-step instructions in how to get multigenre writing up and running in your own classroom. The authors set teachers and students up for success by starting their book with the introduction of the unit and some basic ideas of incorporating the Writer's Workshop into a classroom. After that has been established, they give an overview of the multigenre project so teachers can begin with the end in mind. Next, Youngs and Barone move to the teaching and managing of the writing, offering ideas such as creating timelines, establishing weekly goals, conferencing, analyzing genres, and working with small groups. They present evidence that different units of study can be accomplished with multigenre writing, such as investigating time periods and the contributions of individuals, and inquiring into topics within content areas. Finally, Youngs and Barone give focus points on how to assess students' work. Student multigenre samples are provided along with critiques of their weaknesses and strengths. These two professors have thought through the questions that you may have and have worked out the kinks that might come along in teaching multigenre writing.


Selected Web Annotated Bibliography

Numerous educators, schools, and organizations have created websites dedicated to the multigenre research project. The following bibliography offers a selection of websites featuring introductory information, guidelines, grading rubrics, and sample student work. This bibliography is far from complete. For more information on the multigenre project, plug one of the following terms into your favorite search engine (i.e. www.google.com).

Website Search Terms: multigenre, multi-genre, multigenre research, multi-genre research, multigenre research paper, multi-genre research paper, multigenre research project, multi-genre research project, multigenre essay, multi-genre essay, multigenre writing, multi-genre writing, multigenre web, multi-genre web, multigenre style, multi-genre style, Romano, Dr. Romano, Tom Romano, Dr. Tom Romano.


Bureker, Barbara.(n.d.). A mini-unit: The Melrose House and multigenre writing. In Slavery in America. Retrieved December 12, 2005, from http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/history/hs_lp_melrose1.htm.

The website Slavery in America, endorsed by the National Alliance of Black School Educators, offers a great variety of lesson plans and resources for teaching students about slavery. A mini-unit (about 14 days), submitted by Barbara Bureker, provides teachers with an exceptionally engaging and informative multigenre project. Using an interactive web “Environment” created by Slavery in America (found in a link from the page), students “travel virtually through the Melrose house, one of the wealthiest homes of 19 th century Natchez, Mississippi,” hearing and reading about the lives of the slaves that lived on the plantation. This incredibly detailed unit plan provides step-by-step daily lessons; a list of standards met by the project; a thorough handout with genres and requirements; a detailed rubric; and links to websites with historical samples or examples of MLA citations, “letters written by slave women”/slave owners, “poetry formats,” newspaper articles, editorials, journal/diary entries, slave narratives, “handbills, song covers, advertising, periodical covers,” “political cartoons,” “runaway slave ads,” and “lyrics of spirituals.” Students are asked to complete five pieces of writing of different genres and to include an introduction, citations, and a works cited page. Bureker recommends this unit for U.S. History, American Literature, and general language arts classes and gives tips to modify the lessons for younger students.

Eiguren, Katie., & LeBoeuf, Becky. (2003, December 8). Exploring genres: A curriculum web for students writing multigenre papers. Retrieved December 12, 2005, from http://www.msu.edu/~leboeufb/eng313/.

 In 2003, Katie Eiguren and Becky LeBoeuf, senior education students at Michigan State University, created an online curriculum web to supplement the multigenre project. The four-level web, which students are to attempt after receiving their assignment and an introduction to multigenre writing, allows students to work at their own pace, learn about different genres, and practice their online research skills. A research guide helps focus student work. In level one, students read examples of multigenre papers. Although Eiguren and LeBoeuf designed their site for ninth and tenth graders, they only include one paper written by a high school student. The other three examples are written by college education majors. You may want to supplement this level with links to examples of more age/theme appropriate work. Level two provides students with genre examples from the following five categories: “Print Media” (“obituary” and “letter to the editor”), “Visual Display” (“brochure” and “certificate”), “Informational” (“interview” and “trivia game”), “Creative Writing” (“short story” and “letter”), and “Expository Writing” (“personal narrative” and “report”). Level three gives students tips to search for genres in the following categories: “Print Media” (“article” and “advice column”), “Visual Display” (“cartoon/comic strip” and “map”), “Informational” (“instructions” and “timeline”), “Creative Writing” (“script” and “song lyrics”), and “Structured Writing” (“poem” and “book review”). In level four, students research a genre not listed on their multigenre project’s assignment sheet or on the curriculum web. To earn extra credit, students answer the questions on the research guide, find three examples of their unique genre, and present their findings to the class.

Goodall, Jennifer & Vucko, Stephanie. Pedagogical profiles: Multigenre writing: Beyond the five paragraph essay. Retrieved December 12, 2005, from: http://www.learnquebec.ca/en/content/curriculum/languages/ela/approaches/practices/multigen.html

Vucko, a consultant at Riverside School Board in Quebec, and Goodall, a high school teacher in the same district, created a web site to help teachers implement multigenre writing in their classrooms. The site illustrates different ways multigenre writing can be used in the classroom. The homepage includes some of Vucko and Goodall’s beliefs about teaching multigenre writing and a sample list of genres. This page includes worksheets to aid students in the multigenre writing process.

Holmes, Ashley.  Re-conceptualizing research writing: assigning multigenre projects in first year composition. http://org.elon.edu/CATL/gallery/holmes

Holmes’ web presence is based in large part on a project summary of Holmes’ experience incorporating multigenre research projects into her first year writing class.  She felt her students were bored with traditional research essays; that their work on them had little personal response, voice or perspective.  One of her goals was to have students produce a personal and creative final product that was based on research and met the Elon College first year program objectives.  Holmes focuses on three aspects of the MGP: the research design, the project itself and an explanation of rhetorical choices that each student is required to include in the MGP.  Included in the project summary, which is linked from the home page, are twelve exhibits including a rubric, rhetorical explanation and student handouts. 

Hougue, Dawn, & Wollersheim, Ruth. (2002). Your multi-genre web: Everything you need to know to succeed. Retrieved December 12, 2005 from Sheboygan Fall High School Web Page: http://www.sheboyganfalls.k12.wi.us/cyberenglish9/multi_genre/multigenre.htm.

Two high school English teachers provide a detailed description of a multigenre project. The site defines the multigenre project and then provides tips on how to pick and research topics, and numerous helpful links. Links to worksheets of KWHL charts, concept maps, and brainstorming webs are provided to help students get started on a multigenre project. Links to detailed descriptions of genres are also included to aid in the understanding of each genre. Links to completed projects from previous years are also featured to help students understand what a completed multigenre project can look like.

Lee, Gretchen. (n.d.). Beowulf multigenre projects. Retrieved December 12, 2005, from http://gretchenle.com/student_work/multigenretitle.html.

Middle school teacher Gretchen Lee’s class website offers creative student examples of multigenre projects on Beowulf. The projects focus on characters, such as Grendel’s Mother, and incorporate imaginative genres such as comics, obituaries, t-shirt designs, quizzes, recipes, maps, plays, crossword puzzles, diary entries, and trading cards.

Mack, Nancy. Multigenre report writing. Retrieved December 12, 2005, from http://www.wright.edu/%7Enancy.mack/multigen.htm.

English professor Nancy Mack’s Multigenre Report Writing website offers conceptually astute examples of multigenre writing projects at the college level. Furthermore, a link from this page, Teaching Handouts (http://www.wright.edu/%7Enancy.mack/mghandouts.htm) offers insightful guidance to the multigenre writer. Teaching Handouts addresses such topics as coherence and unity, creating voice, and power relations between voices (i.e. whose voice is believed? / whose voice is the most emotional?). Other useful handouts include an interview release form, citations sheet, and grade sheet.

The National Council of Teachers of English. (2005). Weaving the multigenre web. Retrieved December 12, 2005, from http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_ view.asp?id=279.

The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) provides a thoughtful, thorough lesson plan for the multigenre web, an online interlinked multigenre project. This clear, user-friendly site offers an excellent, resourceful introduction to the multigenre research project and includes an introduction to multigenre writing, theoretical applications, student objectives, instructional plans, rubrics, handouts, Power Point presentations, web building instructions, website links, student assessment and reflections, and the six national standards that the NCTE believes the multigenre web project meets. The NCTE offers this as a lesson for grades 9 through 12, with the time frame of “seven sessions for reading and discussion plus five sessions for web building.”

Schulze, Patricia. (2003). Fall 2003 multigenre webs / Spring 2003 multigenre webs. Retrieved December 12, 2005, from http://www.pschulze.com/forms2003/fall_2002_multigenre_webs.htm.

High school teacher Patricia Schulze offers examples of past students’ multigenre group web projects on the following novels: The Catcher in the Rye, Montana 1948, Ellen Foster, Chinese Handcuffs, Fallen Angels, The Bean Trees, Lord of the Flies, and A Separate Peace. Schulze’s Forms of Fiction students experiment with creative genres, including drawings, poems, letters, advertisements, wanted posters, recipes, and tombstones in their unique multigenre projects.

Simmons, Diane. The multigenre project. Retrieved December 12, 2005 from Bowling Green High Schools Web Page: http://www.b-g.k12.ky.us/schools/bghs/teachers/simmons/MultigenreProjects.html.

Mrs. Simmons of Bowling Green High School introduced multigenre writing to her English III students. Under the link “A Teacher Reflects on the Project,” she describes her student’s multigenre journey and shares her enthusiasm for the projects. Links to 13 of her student’s papers are provided to demonstrate the power of the multigenre project. Many of the papers contain prologues with students comments about the project and give insight into the effect multigenre has on high school students opinions of writing.


Complied by Emily Grubbs Pate, Miami University, 2003.

Updated by Katherine E. McKinnon, Miami University, 2005.

Updated by Linsey E. Milillo, Miami University, 2007.

Updated by Jonathan L. Bennett, Miami University, 2008.

Updated by Greta Powers, Miami University, 2010.

Updated by Andrea Bennett, Miami University, 2012.



Created Spring 2006, Katherine E. McKinnon

Tom Romano
Annotated Bibliography

Multigenre Assignment Sheets

Research Designs
Multigenre Grading Rubrics
Multigenre Papers
Miami University
Miami University: School of Education and Allied Professions
The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
New Hampshire Literacy Institutes at the University of New Hampshire
The Ohio Writing Project