Ph. D., Professor
Department of Educational Psychology
School of Education and Allied Professions
Oxford, Ohio 45056
FAX: (513) 529-3646
Phone: (513) 529-6642 [home] (513) 523-2458
(12 December, 2006 REVISION)
In his 1983 book Frames of Mind, Howard Gardner presented a Theory of Multiple Intelligences that reinforces his cross cultural perspective of human cognition. The intelligences are languages (metaphorically speaking) that all people speak and are informed by the culture into which they are born. They are tools for learning, problem-solving, and creating that all human beings can use. Gardner's (1999) criteria for an intelligence include the following:
Another aspect of the multiple intelligences is that they may be conceptualized in three broad categories. Three of the seven, spacial, logical-mathematical, and bodily-kinesthetic, may be viewed as "object-related" forms of intelligence. These capacities are controlled and shaped by the objects with which individuals encounter and interact in their environments. On the other hand, the "object-free" intelligences, consisting of verbal-linguistic and musical, are not shaped by the physical world but are dependent upon language and musical systems (auditory systems). The third category consists of the "person-related" intelligences with the inter- and intra-personal intelligences reflecting a powerful set of counterbalances.
In 1996 Gardner began to detail an eighth intelligence which focused
on a sensitivity to the environment. This intelligence has been labeled
the "Naturalist" intelligence. In a 1998 article for Scientific
American, Gardner has suggested another "Existential"
that is described as "Capturing and pondering the fundamental questions
of existence (spiritual leaders such as the Dalai Lama, and
thinkers such as Jean Paul Sartre and Soren Kierkegaard are examples).
The present author (Sherman)also suggests a ninth intelligence
which focuses on
olfactory/gustatory perceptual realm of smell and taste. There
is some research indicating that the "haptic sensory system," which
mostly on the hands--- the fingertips contain one of the highest
of tactile receptors--- might also be another intelligence which I will
call the "TOUCH". Recently Gardner (2004) has proposed two
additional intelligences: the mental searchlight, and the laser
A brief description of Gardner's seven (eleven?) intelligences is detailed below. Two tables are provided for each of the 11 intelligences. Throughout the past 10 years the present author has been teaching an advanced seminar on Gardner's multiple intelligences. Students in those classes generated papers which examined particular people who might be examples of extraodinarily gifted individuals within each of the 11 intelligences. The primary purpose of these papers was to see if these individuals fit Gardner's MI model. These individual papers are hyperlinked so that the reader can go directly to them. In as much as many of these individuals exhibit strength in more than one intelligence, it is acknowledged that there might be some debate as to where they are listed.
Verbal/Linguistic intelligence [V/L] consists of the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. Authors, poets, journalists, speakers, and newscasters exhibit high degrees of linguistic intelligence. Uses both the auditory and visual mode of perception.
SOME V/L PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|T. S. ELLIOT [Gardner, 1993]||NTOZAKE SHANGE|
|ERNEST HEMINGWAY||ALBERT CAMUS|
|e. e. cummings||THEODORE
|James Joyce||SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR|
|EDGAR ALLAN POE||FRANZ KAFKA|
|BEVERLY CLEARY||J. R. R. Tolkien|
|VICTOR HUGO||ANNE SEXTON|
|JEAN-PAUL SARTRE||DAVE BARRY|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE V/L INTELLIGENCE
|Formal Speech||Impromptu Speaking|
Musical intelligence [M] is evident in individuals who possess a sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. Those demonstrating this intelligence include composers, conductors, musicians, critics, instrument makers, as well as sensitive listeners. Primarily uses the Auditory mode of perception.
SOME MUSIC PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|IGOR STRAVINSKY [Gardner, 1993]||WOLFGANG A. MOZART|
|AARON COPLAND||BOBBY MCFARRIN|
|MILES DAVIS||SCOTT JOPLIN|
|HARRY FORSTER CHAPIN||DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH|
|BOB DYLAN||JERRY GARCIA|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE
|Rhythmic Patterns||Environmental Sounds|
|Vocal Sounds/Tones||Instrumental Sounds|
|Percussion Vibrations||Tonal Patterns|
Logical/mathematical intelligence [L/M] makes it possible to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complex mathematical operations. Scientists, mathematicians, accountants, engineers, and computer programmers all demonstrate strong logical-mathematical intelligence. Primarily visual mode of perception.
SOME L/M PEOPLE HOW REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|ALBERT EINSTEIN [Gardner, 1993]||JEAN PIAGET|
|BERTRAND RUSSELL||MARIE CURIE|
|MARIA MONTESSORI I AND II||RICHARD FEYNMAN|
|CHARLES DARWIN||JOHN DEWEY|
|BILL GATES||JONAS SALK|
|IAN WILMUT||LEV VYGOTSKY|
|LINUS PAULING||K. F. GAUSS|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT L/M INTELLIGENCE
|Abstract Symbols/Formulas||Deciphering Codes|
|Number Sequences||Problem Solving|
Visual/Spatial intelligence [V/S] instills the capacity to think in two and three-dimensional ways as do sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects. It enables one to perceive e external internal imagery, to recreate, transform, or modify images to navigate oneself and objects through space, and to produce or decode graphic information. Primarily visual mode of perception.
SOME V/S PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|PABLO PICASSO [Gardner, 1993]||ROBERT VENTORI|
|FRANK L. WRIGHT||FRANK GEHRY|
|SALVADOR DALI||JOAN MIRO|
|FRIDA KAHLO||CLAUDE MONET|
|ZAHA M. HADID||I. M. Pei|
|STANLEY KUBRICK||WALT DIZNEY|
|FRANK GEHRY||DALE CHIHULY|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE VISUAL/SPATIAL
Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence [B/K] enables one to
objects and fine-tune physical skills. It is evident in
athletes, dancers, surgeons, and craftspeople. In Western societies, physical skills are not as highly valued as cognitive ones, and yet elsewhere the ability to use one's body is a necessity for survival as well as an important feature of many prestigious roles. Primarily uses a Kinesthetic/Tactile mode of perception including touch, softness, slipperiness, twisting, jumping. This intelligence would also interact with other intelligences such as a musical or theatrical performance... As in a violinists fine motor finger manipulations in playing their instrument.
SOME B/K PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|MARTHA GRAHAM [Gardner, 1993]||Michael Jordan (basketball)|
|Graig Lugannis (Olympic diver)||GEORGE BALANCHINE|
|JIM HENSON||HARPO MARX|
|JAMES "JIMMY" STEWART||TIGER WOODS|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE BODILY/KINESTHETIC
|Folk/Creative Dance||Role Playing|
|Physical Gestures||Martial Arts|
PERSONAL RELATED INTELLIGENCES
Inter-personal intelligence [IE] is the capacity to understand and interact effectively with others. It is evident in successful teachers, social workers, actors, or politicians. Just as Western culture has recently begun to recognize the connection between mind and body, so too has it come to value the importance of proficiency in interpersonal behavior. Modes of perception are diverse including visual auditory tactile and even smell/taste. Howard Gardner's (1995) book, Leading Minds, is an analysis of many great leaders, and is an information-rich text for the study of the inter-personal intelligence.
SOME INTER-PERSONAL PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|MAHATMA GHANDI [Gardner, 1993]||JOHN MAYNARD KENES|
|MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.||CLARA BARTON|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE INTER-PERSONAL
|Giving Feedback||Receiving Feedback|
|Intuiting Others' Feelings||Sensing Others' Motives|
|Cooperative Learning Strategies||Person-to-Person Communication|
|Empathy Practices||Division of Labor|
|Collaboration Skills||Group Projects|
Intra-personal intelligence [IA] refers to the ability to construct an accurate perception of oneself and to use such knowledge in planning and directing one's life. Some individuals with strong intra-personal intelligence specialize as theologians, psychologists, philosophers, mediators.
SOME INTRA-PERSONAL PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|SIGMUND FREUD [Gardner, 1993]|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE INTRA-PERSONAL
|Silent Reflection Methods||Mindfulness Practices|
|Metacognition Techniques||Higher-Order Reasoning|
|Thinking Strategies||Complex Guided Imagery|
|Emotional Processing||"Centering" Practices|
|Focusing/Concentration Skills||"Know Thyself" Procedures|
Two New Intelligences were introduced in 1986. One, by Gardner himself, focus on ones' sensitivity to the environment and has been entitled the NATURALIST intelligence. The other is suggested by the present author (Sherman) as the Gustatory/Olfactory Intelligence.
The Naturalist Intelligence [N] -- This intelligence has to do with observing, understanding and organizing patterns in the natural environment including sensitivity to seasonal and even daily changes. A naturalist is someone who shows expertise in the recognition and classification of plants and animals. This could be anyone from a molecular biologist to a traditional medicine man using herbal remedies [Gardner's latest addition - 1997].
SOME NATURALIST PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|JOHN MUIR||RACHEL CARSON|
|CHARLES DARWIN||GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER|
|LUTHER BURBANK||ANNI DILLARD|
|JOHN JAMES AUDUBON||ALDO LEOPOLD|
|JANE VAN LEWICK-GOODALL|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE NATURALIST INTELLIGENCE
|Observing nature in general||Sensitivity to animal behaviors|
|Gardening and growth cycles||Noticing changes in the environment|
|Training animals||Maintaining zoos|
Gustatory/Olfactory Intelligence [G/O] -- This intelligence has to do with sensitivity to chemicals, especially those chemicals associated with tasting and smelling. Linda Baratoshuk's ( 1994) research into this area testifies to the diversity and variance of individual abilities in this sensory modality. Piet Vroon's et. al. (1997) recent book, Smell: The Secret Seducer, is another example of research into the olfactory domain. These individuals can blend a pallet of tastes and create fine cuisine, identify odors, and blend fine wines and liqueurs. People who have an acute sensitivity for smells and tastes might be chefs, perfumers, vintners [Larry Sherman's latest addition/suggestion]. The ability to perceive the "fundamentals of taste/smell might be: perceptions of sweetness, saltiness, acidity, scent, aroma's, the blending of herbs and spices. The research of Richard Porter (1998) also indicates the primal importance of this sensory modality in the interpersonal area of mother/infant bonding. See also Meredith F. Small's (1998) recent article in Natural History as well as John Travis' (1998) recent report in Science News regarding olfactory sensitivity and human reproduction.
SOME G/O PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
|COCO CHANEL||Julia Child|
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE GUSTATORY/OLFACTORY
TOUCH: the haptic sensory system[T]. The present author would suggest that variability within peoples' ability to perceive and know the world through the sense of touch might include understanding the dimensions of "texture, hardness, temperature, weight, global and exact shape and volume of OBJECTS. Thus this would be an "OBJECT RELATED" intelligence. It might be utilized as a necessary asset in the musical and spatial intelligences in that a performer or creator who uses their fingers, as in a violinist or open-hole flutist would rely heavily upon this sensory modality.
SOME TOUCH PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE TOUCH INTELLIGENCE
|LATERAL MOTION... (rubbing the fingers across a survace provides information about an objects texture||PRESSURE... pressing down on an object provides information about its hardness.|
|STATIC CONTACT... Holding the fingers in one spot rovides information aboutan object's temperature.||UNSUPPORTED HOLDING... Holding an object out away from a support profices information about its weight.|
|ENCLOSURE... Wrapping the hand around an object provides information about its global shape and volume.||CONTOUR FOLLOWING... Moving the fingers about the perimeter of an object provides information about an object's exact shape|
EXISTENTIAL INTELLIGENCE. Recently (Gardner, 1999), another intelligence has been suggested which deals with people who are able to capture and ponder the fundamental questions of existence. This would probably fall in the "Personal Intelligences," and mostlikely the "intra-personal" intelligence.
SOME EXISTENTIAL PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF this
|Soren A. Kierkegaard||Kenneth Wilbur|
MENTAL SEARCHLIGHT INTELLIGENCE.
Gardner (2004) suggested that people with high IQ test scores have this
"mental searchlight" that allows them to scan wide spaces in an
efficient way thus permitting them to run society smoothly " (Gardner,
2004, p. 217).
This intelligence permits one to generate the "..advances (as well as
the catastrophes) of society" (Gardner, 2004, p. 217) usually
associated with the arts, sciences, and trades.
Bartoshuk, L. And Beauchamp, G. K. (1994). Chemical senses. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 419-49.
Blythe, T., and Gardner H. (1990). A school for all intelligences. Educational Leadership. 47(7), 33-37.
Campbell, L., Campbell, B., &;Dickinson, D. (1996). Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn &;Bacon.
Fogarty, R., and Stoehr, J. (1995). Integrating curricula with multiple intelligences. Teams, themes, and threads. K-college. Palatine, IL: IRI Skylight Publishing Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED No. 383 435)
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Book Inc.
Gardner, H. (1991) The unschooled mind: how children think and how schools should teach.New York: Basic Books Inc.
Gardner, H. (1993). Creating Minds. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Gardner, H. (1995). Leading Minds. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Gardner, H. (1997). Extraordinary Minds: Portraits of exceptional individuals and an examination of our extraordinariness. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1998). A Multiplicity of intelligences. Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence (Quarterly) Winter, 1998, 9(4), 18-23.
Gardner, H. (1999). Disciplined Minds: What all students
understand. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed. New Yoek : Basic
Gardner, H. (2004). Audiences for the theory of multiple
College Record, 106, 212-220.
Gardner, H., and Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to
Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences.
Researcher, 18(8), 4-9.
Gardner, H., and Moran, S. (2006). The science of multiple
intelligences theory: A response to Lynn Waterhouse. Educational
Psychologist, 4(4), 227-232.
Klatzky, R. and Lederman, S. J. (1998). ?. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23(6), 1680-1707.
Kornhaber, M., and Gardner, H. (1993, March). Varieties of excellence: identifying and assessing children's talents. A series on authentic assessment and accountability. New York: Columbia University, Teachers College, National Center for Restructuring Education, Schools, and Teaching. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 363 396)
Lazear, David. (1991). Seven ways of teaching: The artistry of teaching with multiple intelligences. Palatine, IL: IRI Skylight Publishing Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 382 374) (highly recommended)
Lazear, David (1992). Teaching for Multiple Intelligences. Fastback 342 Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappan Educational Foundation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 356 227) (highly recommended)
Martin, W.C. (1995, March). Assessing multiple intelligences. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Conference on Educational Assessment, Ponce, PR. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 385 368)
Porter, Richard, (1998). ?. Early Human Development, 51, 1, 47-55.
Small, M. F. (1998). Love with the proper stranger. Natural History, 107(7), 14-19.
Travis, J. (1998). Dialing up an embryo: Are olfactory receptors digits in a developmental code? Science News, 154(7), 106-107.
Vroon, P., Van Amerongen, A., and de Vries, H. (1997) Smell: The
Secret Seducer. New York: Farrar, Straus &;Giroux.
Waterhouse, L. (2006). Multiple Intelligences, the Mozart Effect,
and Emotional Intelligence: A Critical Review. Educational
Psychologist, 4(4), 207-225.
Some selected electronic references on the WWW:
BASIC MI THEORY
Apr 94 Current Issues in Research on Intelligence. ERIC/AE Digest.
Author: Yekovich, Frank R.
Jun 94 Blending Gifted Education and School Reform. ERIC Digest #E525.
Author: Hanninen, Gail E.
95 Working with Diverse Learners and School Staff in a Multicultural
Authors: Sanchez, William; And Others
90 Gifted but Learning Disabled: A Puzzling Paradox. ERIC Digest #E479.
Author: Baum, Susan
ED321481 90 Giftedness and the Gifted: What's It All About? ERIC Digest #E476.
Multimedia and Multiple Intelligences [Shirley Veenema and Howard
A PERSONAL INVENTORY
|INTELLIGENCE||PROFESSIONAL USE||+ PERSONAL USE||= TOTAL|
The inventory above enables one to identify their strengths as well as the intelligences they seldom use. Such an assessment may serve as a guide in discovering intelligence areas that my be more fully developed. The inventory features the nine intelligences and boxes in which to assess the current level of professional and personal use. Assign a 3 to any intelligence used extensively, a 2 for moderate use, a 1 for infrequent use, and a 0 if never used. The total for each intelligence then can range from a low of zero to a high of six. After completing this brief assessment, reflect on the results [you are using your INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE to do so!] Now consider the following questions:
ANTICIPATED LEARNER OUTCOMES:_______________________________
CLASSROOM RESOURCES OF MATERIALS:_________________________
ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES: ___________________________________________
LESSON/UNIT OBJECTIVES: Students learn the process of photosynthesis through eight modes.
ANTICIPATED LEARNER OUTCOMES:Students will be able to explain the
process of photosynthesis visually, logically, linguistically,
musically, ... And relate the concept of "TRANSFORMATION and
CHANGE" to their own lives.
CLASSROOM RESOURCES OF MATERIALS: Displayed posters or charts of the
process of photosynthesis, a variety of musical tapes or CD's and
water color supplies, science books, cook books,
|VERBAL/LINGUISTIC: Read textbook section describing photosynthesis and appropriate vocabulary||MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL: Create a timeline of the steps of photosynthesis.|
|VISUAL/SPATIAL:With watercolors, paint the process of photosynthesis.||BODILY/KINESTHETIC: Role play the "characters" involved in the process of photosynthesis.|
|MUSICAL: Create a musical collage with different musical selections that represent the sequence of steps involved in photosynthesis||INTERPERSONAL:In small groups, discuss the transformative role of chloroplasts in photosynthesis and draw parallels to students; lives.|
|INTRAPERSONAL: Write a journal entry that reflects on a personally transformative experience and compare it to photosynthesis.||SMELL/TASTE: prepare a meal from vegetables which have undergone the photosynthesis transformation: Eg., green tomatoes to red tomatoes to catsup.|
|HAPTIC: Write about how green vs ripe red tomatoes feel.||EXISTENTIAL: Contemplate the virtues of a vegitarian diet?|
LESSON/UNIT SEQUENCE: 1) Linguistic activity; 2) Logical- mathematical activity; 3) Bodily-kinesthetic activity; 4) Visual-spatial activity; 5) Musical activity; 6) Interpersonal activity; 7) Intrapersonal activity; 8) etc.
1) Grade mathematical timeline and/or painting.
2) Ask students to evaluate one another's role plays and/or songs