HOWARD GARDNER'S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES:

An Inservice Presentation to Independence Elementary School, Lakota School District
November 4, 1997
AND
AGATE: Lane Library
Oxford, Ohio
22 April, 1998

Lawrence W. Sherman, Ph. D., Professor
Department of Educational Psychology
School of Education and Allied Professions
Miami University
Oxford, Ohio 45056
e-mail: shermalw@muohio.edu
FAX: (513) 529-3646
Phone: (513) 529-6642 [home] (513) 523-2458
URL: http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermalw

(12 December, 2006 REVISION)


HOWARD GARDNER'S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

INTRODUCTION


In his 1983 book Frames of Mind, Howard Gardner presented a Theory of Multiple Intelligences that reinforces his cross cultural perspective of human cognition. The intelligences are languages (metaphorically speaking) that all people speak and are informed by the culture into which they are born. They are tools for learning, problem-solving, and creating that all human beings can use. Gardner's (1999) criteria for an intelligence include the following:

Gardner is careful to explain that intelligence should not be limited to the ones he has identified. He believes that the seven, however, provide a far more accurate picture of human capacities than do previous unitary theories. Contrary to the small range of abilities that many standard IQ tests measure, Gardner's theory offers an expanded image of what it means to be human. He also notes that each intelligence contains several sub-intelligences. For example there are sub-intelligences within the domain of music that include playing music, singing, writing musical scores, conducting, critiquing, and appreciating music, as well as the ability to perceive and execute tonality, harmony, rhythm - or what some people would call the "fundamentals of music. Each of the six other intelligences also encompass numerous "fundamental" components.  Recently a "critical review" of several theories including Multiple Intelligences has addressed several problems with Gardner's theory (Waterhouse, 2006).  Gardner (2006) has responded to this critical review as well (Gardner, 2006). Reading these two articles would definitely be an important consideration for anyone interested in the controversies. 

Another aspect of the multiple intelligences is that they may be conceptualized in three broad categories. Three of the seven, spacial, logical-mathematical, and bodily-kinesthetic, may be viewed as "object-related" forms of intelligence. These capacities are controlled and shaped by the objects with which individuals encounter and interact in their environments. On the other hand, the "object-free" intelligences, consisting of verbal-linguistic and musical, are not shaped by the physical world but are dependent upon language and musical systems (auditory systems). The third category consists of the "person-related" intelligences with the inter- and intra-personal intelligences reflecting a powerful set of counterbalances.

In 1996 Gardner began to detail an eighth intelligence which focused on a sensitivity to the environment. This intelligence has been labeled the "Naturalist" intelligence. In a 1998 article for Scientific American, Gardner has suggested another "Existential" intelligence" that is described as "Capturing and pondering the fundamental questions of existence (spiritual leaders such as the Dalai Lama, and philosophical thinkers such as Jean Paul Sartre and Soren Kierkegaard are examples). The present author  (Sherman)also suggests a ninth intelligence which focuses on the olfactory/gustatory perceptual realm of smell and taste. There is some research indicating that the "haptic sensory system," which focuses mostly on the hands--- the fingertips contain one of the highest densities of tactile receptors--- might also be another intelligence which I will call the "TOUCH".  Recently Gardner (2004) has proposed two additional intelligences: the mental searchlight, and the laser intelligence. 

A brief description of Gardner's seven (eleven?) intelligences is detailed below. Two tables are provided for each of the 11 intelligences. Throughout the past 10 years the present author has been teaching an advanced seminar on Gardner's multiple intelligences. Students in those classes generated papers which examined particular people who might be examples of extraodinarily gifted individuals within each of the 11  intelligences. The primary purpose of these papers was to see if these individuals fit Gardner's MI model. These individual papers are hyperlinked so that the reader can go directly to them.  In as much as many of these individuals exhibit strength in more than one intelligence, it is acknowledged that there might be some debate as to where they are listed.

OBJECT-FREE INTELLIGENCES

Verbal/Linguistic intelligence [V/L] consists of the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. Authors, poets, journalists, speakers, and newscasters exhibit high degrees of linguistic intelligence. Uses both the auditory and visual mode of perception.

SOME V/L PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
T. S. ELLIOT [Gardner, 1993] NTOZAKE SHANGE
ERNEST HEMINGWAY ALBERT CAMUS
e. e. cummings THEODORE GEISEL
DR. SEUSS
James Joyce SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR
EDGAR ALLAN POE FRANZ KAFKA
BEVERLY CLEARY J. R. R. Tolkien
VICTOR HUGO ANNE SEXTON
JEAN-PAUL SARTRE DAVE BARRY

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE V/L INTELLIGENCE
 
Reading  Poetry 
Vocabulary  Verbal Debate 
Formal Speech  Impromptu Speaking 
Journal/Diary Keeping  Humor/Jokes 
Creative Writing  Storytelling 

Musical intelligence [M] is evident in individuals who possess a sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. Those demonstrating this intelligence include composers, conductors, musicians, critics, instrument makers, as well as sensitive listeners. Primarily uses the Auditory mode of perception.

SOME MUSIC PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
IGOR STRAVINSKY [Gardner, 1993] WOLFGANG A. MOZART 
AARON COPLAND  BOBBY MCFARRIN 
MILES DAVIS  SCOTT JOPLIN
HARRY FORSTER CHAPIN DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH
BOB DYLAN JERRY GARCIA

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE
 
Rhythmic Patterns  Environmental Sounds 
Vocal Sounds/Tones  Instrumental Sounds 
Musical Composition/Creation  Singing 
Percussion Vibrations  Tonal Patterns 
Humming/whistling  Music Performance

OBJECT-RELATED INTELLIGENCES

Logical/mathematical intelligence [L/M] makes it possible to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complex mathematical operations. Scientists, mathematicians, accountants, engineers, and computer programmers all demonstrate strong logical-mathematical intelligence. Primarily visual mode of perception.

SOME L/M PEOPLE HOW REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
ALBERT EINSTEIN [Gardner, 1993] JEAN PIAGET
BERTRAND RUSSELL MARIE CURIE
MARIA MONTESSORI I AND II  RICHARD FEYNMAN
CHARLES DARWIN JOHN DEWEY
BILL GATES JONAS SALK
IAN WILMUT LEV VYGOTSKY
LINUS PAULING K. F. GAUSS
KEVIN MITANICK

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT L/M INTELLIGENCE
 
Abstract Symbols/Formulas  Deciphering Codes 
Outlining  Forcing Relationships 
Graphic Organizers  Syllogisms 
Number Sequences  Problem Solving 
Calculation  ÄPattern Games 

Visual/Spatial intelligence [V/S] instills the capacity to think in two and three-dimensional ways as do sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects. It enables one to perceive e external internal imagery, to recreate, transform, or modify images to navigate oneself and objects through space, and to produce or decode graphic information. Primarily visual mode of perception.

SOME V/S PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
PABLO PICASSO [Gardner, 1993] ROBERT VENTORI 
FRANK L. WRIGHT FRANK GEHRY 
SALVADOR DALI JOAN MIRO 
FRIDA KAHLO CLAUDE MONET
ZAHA M. HADID I. M. Pei
STANLEY KUBRICK  WALT DIZNEY
FRANK GEHRY DALE CHIHULY

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE VISUAL/SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE
 
Guided Imagery  Drawing/cartooning
Active Imagination  Mind-Mapping 
Color Schemes  Pretending 
Patterns/Designs  Sculpture 
Painting  Pictures 

Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence [B/K] enables one to manipulate objects and fine-tune physical skills. It is evident in
athletes, dancers, surgeons, and craftspeople. In Western societies, physical skills are not as highly valued as cognitive ones, and yet elsewhere the ability to use one's body is a necessity for survival as well as an important feature of many prestigious roles. Primarily uses a Kinesthetic/Tactile mode of perception including touch, softness, slipperiness, twisting, jumping. This intelligence would also interact with other intelligences such as a musical or theatrical performance... As in a violinists fine motor finger manipulations in playing their instrument.

SOME B/K PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
MARTHA GRAHAM [Gardner, 1993] Michael Jordan (basketball) 
Graig Lugannis (Olympic diver)  GEORGE BALANCHINE
JIM HENSON HARPO MARX
JAMES "JIMMY" STEWART  TIGER WOODS
ORSON WELLES  

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE BODILY/KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE
 
Folk/Creative Dance  Role Playing 
Physical Gestures  Martial Arts 
Drama  Body Language 
Physical Exercise  Inventing 
Mime  ÄSports 

PERSONAL RELATED INTELLIGENCES

Inter-personal intelligence [IE] is the capacity to understand and interact effectively with others. It is evident in successful teachers, social workers, actors, or politicians. Just as Western culture has recently begun to recognize the connection between mind and body, so too has it come to value the importance of proficiency in interpersonal behavior. Modes of perception are diverse including visual auditory tactile and even smell/taste. Howard Gardner's (1995) book, Leading Minds, is an analysis of many great leaders, and is an information-rich text for the study of the inter-personal intelligence.

SOME INTER-PERSONAL PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
MAHATMA GHANDI [Gardner, 1993] JOHN MAYNARD KENES
MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. CLARA BARTON
ELEANOR ROOSEVELT  
   
   

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE INTER-PERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
 
Giving Feedback  Receiving Feedback 
Intuiting Others' Feelings  Sensing Others' Motives 
Cooperative Learning Strategies  Person-to-Person Communication 
Empathy Practices  Division of Labor 
Collaboration Skills  Group Projects 

Intra-personal intelligence [IA] refers to the ability to construct an accurate perception of oneself and to use such knowledge in planning and directing one's life. Some individuals with strong intra-personal intelligence specialize as theologians, psychologists, philosophers, mediators.

SOME INTRA-PERSONAL PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
SIGMUND FREUD [Gardner, 1993]  
Dali Lama   
LEV VYGOTSKY  
DEEPAK CHOPRA  
KAREN HORNEY  

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE INTRA-PERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
 
Silent Reflection Methods  Mindfulness Practices 
Metacognition Techniques  Higher-Order Reasoning 
Thinking Strategies  Complex Guided Imagery 
Emotional Processing  "Centering" Practices 
Focusing/Concentration Skills  "Know Thyself" Procedures 

Two New Intelligences were introduced in 1986. One, by Gardner himself, focus on ones' sensitivity to the environment and has been entitled the NATURALIST intelligence. The other is suggested by the present author (Sherman) as the Gustatory/Olfactory Intelligence.

The Naturalist Intelligence [N] -- This intelligence has to do with observing, understanding and organizing patterns in the natural environment including sensitivity to seasonal and even daily changes. A naturalist is someone who shows expertise in the recognition and classification of plants and animals. This could be anyone from a molecular biologist to a traditional medicine man using herbal remedies [Gardner's latest addition - 1997].

SOME NATURALIST PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
JOHN MUIR  RACHEL CARSON 
CHARLES DARWIN GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER 
LUTHER BURBANK  ANNI DILLARD 
JOHN JAMES AUDUBON  ALDO LEOPOLD 
JANE VAN LEWICK-GOODALL   

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE NATURALIST INTELLIGENCE
 
Observing nature in general  Sensitivity to animal behaviors 
Gardening and growth cycles  Noticing changes in the environment 
Training animals  Maintaining zoos 
Oceanographers  Geologists 
Meteorologists  Astronomers 

Gustatory/Olfactory Intelligence [G/O] -- This intelligence has to do with sensitivity to chemicals, especially those chemicals associated with tasting and smelling. Linda Baratoshuk's ( 1994) research into this area testifies to the diversity and variance of individual abilities in this sensory modality. Piet Vroon's et. al. (1997) recent book, Smell: The Secret Seducer, is another example of research into the olfactory domain. These individuals can blend a pallet of tastes and create fine cuisine, identify odors, and blend fine wines and liqueurs. People who have an acute sensitivity for smells and tastes might be chefs, perfumers, vintners [Larry Sherman's latest addition/suggestion]. The ability to perceive the "fundamentals of taste/smell might be: perceptions of sweetness, saltiness, acidity, scent, aroma's, the blending of herbs and spices. The research of Richard Porter (1998) also indicates the primal importance of this sensory modality in the interpersonal area of mother/infant bonding. See also Meredith F. Small's (1998) recent article in Natural History as well as John Travis' (1998) recent report in Science News regarding olfactory sensitivity and human reproduction.

SOME G/O PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
COCO CHANEL Julia Child
   
   
   
   

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE GUSTATORY/OLFACTORY INTELLIGENCE
 
Great Chefs  Vintner's 
Perfumer   
   
   
   

TOUCH: the haptic sensory system[T]. The present author would suggest that variability within peoples' ability to perceive and know the world through the sense of touch might include understanding the dimensions of "texture, hardness, temperature, weight, global and exact shape and volume of OBJECTS. Thus this would be an "OBJECT RELATED" intelligence. It might be utilized as a necessary asset in the musical and spatial intelligences in that a performer or creator who uses their fingers, as in a violinist or open-hole flutist would rely heavily upon this sensory modality.

SOME TOUCH PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF CREATIVITY
 
Performing Musicians  Sculptores 
Potters  Magicians 
   
   
   

SOME ACTIVITIES/BEHAVIORS THAT REFLECT THE TOUCH INTELLIGENCE
 
LATERAL MOTION... (rubbing the fingers across a survace provides information about an objects texture PRESSURE... pressing down on an object provides information about its hardness
STATIC CONTACT... Holding the fingers in one spot rovides information aboutan object's temperature UNSUPPORTED HOLDING... Holding an object out away from a support profices information about its weight
ENCLOSURE... Wrapping the hand around an object provides information about its global shape and volume. CONTOUR FOLLOWING... Moving the fingers about the perimeter of an object provides information about an object's exact shape

EXISTENTIAL INTELLIGENCE. Recently (Gardner, 1999), another intelligence has been suggested which deals with people who are able to capture and ponder the fundamental questions of existence. This would probably fall in the "Personal Intelligences," and mostlikely the "intra-personal" intelligence.

SOME EXISTENTIAL PEOPLE WHO REFLECT THE EPITOME OF this intelligence might be:
 

Dalai Lama
Jean-Paul Sartre
Soren A. Kierkegaard Kenneth Wilbur 
   
   

MENTAL SEARCHLIGHT INTELLIGENCE.  Gardner (2004) suggested that people with high IQ test scores have this "mental searchlight" that allows them to scan wide spaces in an efficient way thus permitting them to run society smoothly " (Gardner, 2004, p. 217).   

 

LASER INTELLIGENCE.  This intelligence permits one to generate the "..advances (as well as the catastrophes) of society" (Gardner, 2004, p. 217)  usually associated with the arts, sciences, and trades.

REFERENCES:

Bartoshuk, L. And Beauchamp, G. K. (1994). Chemical senses. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 419-49.

Blythe, T., and Gardner H. (1990). A school for all intelligences. Educational Leadership. 47(7), 33-37.

Campbell, L., Campbell, B., &;Dickinson, D. (1996). Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn &;Bacon.

Fogarty, R., and Stoehr, J. (1995). Integrating curricula with multiple intelligences. Teams, themes, and threads. K-college. Palatine, IL: IRI Skylight Publishing Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED No. 383 435)

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Book Inc.

Gardner, H. (1991) The unschooled mind: how children think and how schools should teach.New York: Basic Books Inc.

Gardner, H. (1993). Creating Minds. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Gardner, H. (1995). Leading Minds. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Gardner, H. (1997).  Extraordinary Minds: Portraits of exceptional individuals and an examination of our extraordinariness.  New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1998). A Multiplicity of intelligences. Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence (Quarterly) Winter, 1998, 9(4), 18-23.

Gardner, H. (1999).  Disciplined Minds: What all students should understand.  New York: Simon and Schuster.

Gardner, H. (1999).  Intelligence reframed. New Yoek : Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (2004). Audiences for the theory of multiple intelligences. Teachers College Record, 106, 212-220.

Gardner, H., and Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4-9.

Gardner, H., and Moran, S. (2006). The science of multiple intelligences theory: A response to Lynn Waterhouse. Educational Psychologist, 4(4), 227-232.

Klatzky, R. and Lederman, S. J. (1998). ?. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23(6), 1680-1707.

Kornhaber, M., and Gardner, H. (1993, March). Varieties of excellence: identifying and assessing children's talents. A series on authentic assessment and accountability. New York: Columbia University, Teachers College, National Center for Restructuring Education, Schools, and Teaching. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 363 396)

Lazear, David. (1991). Seven ways of teaching: The artistry of teaching with multiple intelligences. Palatine, IL: IRI Skylight Publishing Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 382 374) (highly recommended)

Lazear, David (1992). Teaching for Multiple Intelligences. Fastback 342 Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappan Educational Foundation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 356 227) (highly recommended)

Martin, W.C. (1995, March). Assessing multiple intelligences. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Conference on Educational Assessment, Ponce, PR. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 385 368)

Porter, Richard, (1998). ?. Early Human Development, 51, 1, 47-55.

Small, M. F. (1998). Love with the proper stranger. Natural History, 107(7), 14-19.

Travis, J. (1998). Dialing up an embryo: Are olfactory receptors digits in a developmental code? Science News, 154(7), 106-107.

Vroon, P., Van Amerongen, A., and de Vries, H. (1997) Smell: The Secret Seducer. New York: Farrar, Straus &;Giroux.

Waterhouse, L. (2006). Multiple Intelligences, the Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence: A Critical Review. Educational Psychologist, 4(4), 207-225.

Some selected electronic references on the WWW:

BASIC MI THEORY

ED385605 Apr 94 Current Issues in Research on Intelligence. ERIC/AE Digest.
Author: Yekovich, Frank R.
 

ED371520 Jun 94 Blending Gifted Education and School Reform. ERIC Digest #E525.
Author: Hanninen, Gail E.
 

ED390018 95 Working with Diverse Learners and School Staff in a Multicultural Society. Digest.
Authors: Sanchez, William; And Others
 

ED321484 90 Gifted but Learning Disabled: A Puzzling Paradox. ERIC Digest #E479.
Author: Baum, Susan
 

ED321481 90 Giftedness and the Gifted: What's It All About? ERIC Digest #E476.

Multimedia and Multiple Intelligences [Shirley Veenema and Howard Gardner]
http://epn.org/prospect/29/29veen.html
 
 

A PERSONAL INVENTORY


INTELLIGENCE  PROFESSIONAL USE  + PERSONAL USE  = TOTAL 
LOGICAL /MATHEMATICAL 
VERBAL /LINGUISTIC  .
VISUAL/SPATIAL 
BODILY/ KINESTHETIC 
MUSICAL 
INTERPERSONAL 
INTRAPERSONAL 
NATURALIST 
GUSTATORY /OLFACTORY 
HAPTIC . .
EXISTENTIAL . .
MENTAL SEARCHLIGHT



LASER INTELLIGENCE



TOTAL . .

The inventory above enables one to identify their strengths as well as the intelligences they seldom use. Such an assessment may serve as a guide in discovering intelligence areas that my be more fully developed. The inventory features the nine intelligences and boxes in which to assess the current level of professional and personal use. Assign a 3 to any intelligence used extensively, a 2 for moderate use, a 1 for infrequent use, and a 0 if never used. The total for each intelligence then can range from a low of zero to a high of six. After completing this brief assessment, reflect on the results [you are using your INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE to do so!] Now consider the following questions:



LESSON/UNIT PLANNING WITH THE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

LESSON/UNIT TITLE:____________________________________________

LESSON/UNIT OBJECTIVES:_________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

ANTICIPATED LEARNER OUTCOMES:_______________________________

___________________________________________________________________

CLASSROOM RESOURCES OF MATERIALS:_________________________

___________________________________________________________________
 
VERBAL/LINGUISTIC:  MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL: 
VISUAL/SPATIAL:  BODILY/KINESTHETIC: 
MUSICAL:  INTERPERSONAL: 
INTRAPERSONAL:  NATURALISTS: 
GUSTATORY/OLFACTORY:  TOUCH: 
HAPTIC: EXISTENTIAL:

LESSON/UNIT SEQUENCE:_________________________________________________________

ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES: ___________________________________________

LESSON/UNIT PLANNING WITH THE MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES [example]

LESSON/UNIT TITLE:_Photosynthesis: converting Sunlight to FOOD___

LESSON/UNIT OBJECTIVES: Students learn the process of photosynthesis through eight modes.

ANTICIPATED LEARNER OUTCOMES:Students will be able to explain the
process of photosynthesis visually, logically, linguistically,
musically, ... And relate the concept of "TRANSFORMATION and
CHANGE" to their own lives.

CLASSROOM RESOURCES OF MATERIALS: Displayed posters or charts of the process of photosynthesis, a variety of musical tapes or CD's and player, water color supplies, science books, cook books,
 
VERBAL/LINGUISTIC: Read textbook section describing photosynthesis and appropriate vocabulary  MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL: Create a timeline of the steps of photosynthesis. 
VISUAL/SPATIAL:With watercolors, paint the process of photosynthesis.  BODILY/KINESTHETIC: Role play the "characters" involved in the process of photosynthesis. 
MUSICAL: Create a musical collage with different musical selections that represent the sequence of steps involved in photosynthesis  INTERPERSONAL:In small groups, discuss the transformative role of chloroplasts in photosynthesis and draw parallels to students; lives. 
INTRAPERSONAL: Write a journal entry that reflects on a personally transformative experience and compare it to photosynthesis.  SMELL/TASTE: prepare a meal from vegetables which have undergone the photosynthesis transformation: Eg., green tomatoes to red tomatoes to catsup. 
HAPTIC: Write about how green vs ripe red tomatoes feel. EXISTENTIAL: Contemplate the virtues of a vegitarian diet? 

LESSON/UNIT SEQUENCE: 1) Linguistic activity; 2) Logical- mathematical activity; 3) Bodily-kinesthetic activity; 4) Visual-spatial activity; 5) Musical activity; 6) Interpersonal activity; 7) Intrapersonal activity; 8) etc.

ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES:

1) Grade mathematical timeline and/or painting.
2) Ask students to evaluate one another's role plays and/or songs