Jewish Communities

On this page, I have assembled data on Jewish communities as they existed in the study area before 1933. The backbone of the data has been assembled from individual community studies published in Herbert Obenaus, ed., Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen which I have augmented from other sources. 

Synagogues

Cemeteries

Chapters of the Central-Verein

Regierungsbezirk Aurich

Regierungsbezirk Stade

AurichAumund
BundeBederkesa
DornumBremervörde
EmdenCuxhaven
EsensDorum
JemgumHagen
LeerHorneburg
Neustadt-GödensLehe/Geestemünde
NordenLesum
WeenerNeuhaus
WittmundOtterndorf
WilhelmshavenSchwarmbeck
Stade
Grossherzogtum/Freistaat OldenburgStotel
BerneUthlede
Brake
Oldenburg
Ovelgönne
Rüstringen
Varel


Wittmund

1871population1887
number of Jews88
Jews as percentage of population4.7%
1885population1901
number of Jews86
Jews as percentage of population4.5%
1895population1980
number of Jews81
Jews as percentage of population4.1%
1905population2116
number of Jews71
Jews as percentage of population3.3%
1925population2435
number of Jews53
Jews as percentage of population2.2%
1933population2556
number of Jews41
Jews as percentage of population1.6%

source: Daniel Fraenkel, "Wittmund", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1567.

Neustadt-Gödens


1871population769
number of Jews196
Jews as percentage of population25.5%
1885population667
number of Jews139
Jews as percentage of population20.8%
1895population586
number of Jews115
Jews as percentage of population19.6%
1905population604
number of Jews85
Jews as percentage of population14.1%
1925population574
number of Jews25
Jews as percentage of population4.4%
1933population505
number of Jews12
Jews as percentage of population2.4%

source: Werner Vahlenkamp, "Neustadt-Gödens", Historisches Handbuch der juedischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1099.

Esens


1871population2233
number of Jews118
Jews as percentage of population5.3%
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population2487
number of Jews89
Jews as percentage of population3.6%
1925population2218
number of Jews76
Jews as percentage of population3.4%
1933population2968
number of Jews82
Jews as percentage of population2.8%

source: Gerd Rokahr, "Esens", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 570.

Dornum


1871population912
number of Jews62
Jews as percentage of population6.8%
1885population794
number of Jews61
Jews as percentage of population7.7%
1895population862
number of Jews59
Jews as percentage of population6.8%
1905population841
number of Jews83
Jews as percentage of population9.9%
1925population789
number of Jews58
Jews as percentage of population7.4%
1933population826
number of Jews53
Jews as percentage of population6.4%

source: Daniel Fraenkel, "Dornum", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 478.

Norden


1871population6070
number of Jews309
Jews as percentage of population5.1%
1885population6879
number of Jews253
Jews as percentage of population3.7%
1895population6794
number of Jews252
Jews as percentage of population3.7%
1905population6717
number of Jews286
Jews as percentage of population4.3%
1925population11,025
number of Jews231
Jews as percentage of population2.1%
1933population12,150
number of Jews204
Jews as percentage of population1.7%

source: Daniel Fraenkel, "Norden", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1122.

Aurich


1871population4264
number of Jews359
Jews as percentage of population8.4%
1885population5395
number of Jews406
Jews as percentage of population7.5%
1895population5899
number of Jews394
Jews as percentage of population6.7%
1905population6141
number of Jews370
Jews as percentage of population6.0%
1925population6136
number of Jews398
Jews as percentage of population6.5%
1933population6558
number of Jews395
Jews as percentage of population6.0%

source: Herbert Reyer, "Aurich", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 126.

Emden


1871population12,588
number of Jews681
Jews as percentage of population5.4%
1885population14,019
number of Jews663
Jews as percentage of population4.7%
1895population14,485
number of Jews726
Jews as percentage of population5.0%
1905population20,754
number of Jews809
Jews as percentage of population3.9%
1925population31,729
number of Jews700
Jews as percentage of population2.2%
1933population34,111
number of Jews581
Jews as percentage of population1.7%

source: Jan Lokers, "Emden", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 533.

Jemgum


1871population1223
number of Jews20
Jews as percentage of population1.6%
1885population1240
number of Jews50
Jews as percentage of population4.0%
1895population1121
number of Jews39
Jews as percentage of population3.5%
1905population1143
number of Jews20
Jews as percentage of population1.7%
1925population1073
number of Jews9
Jews as percentage of population0.8%
1933population1140
number of Jews9
Jews as percentage of population0.8%

source: Herbert Reyer, "Jemgum", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 903.

Leer


1871population8932
number of Jews256
Jews as percentage of population2.9%
1885population10,409
number of Jews306
Jews as percentage of population2.9%
1895population11,470
number of Jews302
Jews as percentage of population2.6%
1905population12,347
number of Jews266
Jews as percentage of population2.2%
1925population12,238
number of Jews289
Jews as percentage of population2.4%
1933population13,245
number of Jews259
Jews as percentage of population2.0%

source: Daniel Fraenkel, "Leer", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 942.

Bunde

1871population1767
number of Jews35
Jews as percentage of population2.0%
1885population1780
number of Jews55
Jews as percentage of population3.1%
1895population1815
number of Jews65
Jews as percentage of population3.6%
1905population1709
number of Jews65
Jews as percentage of population3.8%
1925population1985
number of Jews70
Jews as percentage of population3.5%
1933population2175
number of Jews52
Jews as percentage of population2.4%

source: Daniel Fraenkel, "Bunde", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 381.


Weener


1871population3209
number of Jews205
Jews as percentage of population6.4%
1885population3724
number of Jews231
Jews as percentage of population6.2%
1895population3626
number of Jews192
Jews as percentage of population5.3%
1905population3872
number of Jews175
Jews as percentage of population4.5%
1925population4127
number of Jews149
Jews as percentage of population3.6%
1933population4290
number of Jews131
Jews as percentage of population3.1%

source: Daniel Fraenkel, "Weener", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1534.

Wilhelmshaven


1885population
number of Jews47
Jews as percentage of population
1895population19,422
number of Jews76
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews103
Jews as percentage of population
1925population25,403
number of Jews127
Jews as percentage of population
1933population28,016
number of Jews109
Jews as percentage of population

source: Daniel Fraenkel, "Wilhelmshaven", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1551.

Rüstringen


1885population10,921
number of Jews27
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population48,969
number of Jews112
Jews as percentage of population
1933population48,562
number of Jews82
Jews as percentage of population
 
source: Daniel Fraenkel, "Wilhelmshaven", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1551.

Varel


1875population4853
number of Jews90
Jews as percentage of population
1885population4812
number of Jews92
Jews as percentage of population
1895population4907
number of Jews67
Jews as percentage of population
1905population5558
number of Jews64
Jews as percentage of population
1925population8620
number of Jews63
Jews as percentage of population
1933population7743
number of Jews39
Jews as percentage of population

source: Werner Wahlenkamp, "Varel", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1493.

Ovelgönne


1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population625
number of Jews1
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population507
number of Jews0
Jews as percentage of population

source: Werner Meiners, "Ovelgoenne", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1242.

Brake


1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: xx xx, "xxx", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. xxxx.

Oldenburg


1871population14,934
number of Jews135
Jews as percentage of population0.9%
1885population21,438
number of Jews219
Jews as percentage of population1.0%
1895population25,472
number of Jews196
Jews as percentage of population0.8%
1905population28,565
number of Jews265
Jews as percentage of population0.9%
1925population52,723
number of Jews316
Jews as percentage of population0.6%
1933population66,951
number of Jews279
Jews as percentage of population0.4%

source: Werner Meiners, "Oldenburg", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1172.

Berne


1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population3510
number of Jews27
Jews as percentage of population0.8%
1905population3385
number of Jews25
Jews as percentage of population0.7%
1925population
number of Jews11
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: xx xx, "xxx", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. xxxx.

Horneburg


1871population6985
number of Jews32
Jews as percentage of population
1885population9116
number of Jews29
Jews as percentage of population
1895population8138
number of Jews14
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population12,145
number of Jews19
Jews as percentage of population
1933population13,366
number of Jews2
Jews as percentage of population

source: Jürgen Bohmbach, "Horneburg", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 889.

Bremervörde

1871population2903
number of Jews19
Jews as percentage of population0.7%
1885population3147
number of Jews22
Jews as percentage of population0.7%
1895population3126
number of Jews24
Jews as percentage of population0.8%
1905population3683
number of Jews17
Jews as percentage of population0.5%
1925population4286
number of Jews35
Jews as percentage of population0.8%
1933population4435
number of Jews23
Jews as percentage of population0.5%

source: Andrea Bomert and Jürgen Bohmbach, "Bremervörde", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 344.

Schwarmbeck


1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: xx xx, "xxx", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. xxxx.

Uthlede


1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: xx xx, "xxx", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. xxxx.

Hagen


1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: xx xx, "xxx", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. xxxx.

Stotel


1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: xx xx, "xxx", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. xxxx.

Lehe/Geestemünde


1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population73,544
number of Jews221
Jews as percentage of population0.3%
1933population77,491
number of Jews200
Jews as percentage of population0.3%

source: Uwe Weiher, "Lehe-Geestemünde", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 973.

Bederkesa


In 1864, the Bederkesa synagoge closed and the few remaining members became part of the Lehe-Geestemuende community.


1871population1215
number of Jews3
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: xx xx, "xxx", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. xxxx.

Dorum


1871population1878
number of Jews34
Jews as percentage of population
1885population1774
number of Jews24
Jews as percentage of population
1895population1819
number of Jews1
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: xx xx, "xxx", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. xxxx.

Otterndorf

1871population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1885population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1895population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1905population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1925population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population
1933population
number of Jews
Jews as percentage of population

source: Jürgen Bohmbach, "Otterndorf", Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Niedersachsen und Bremen, p. 1235.


Synagogues

Dornum


Cemeteries

Dornum

Ortsgruppen der Centralverein deutscher Staatsbuerger juedischen Glauben