Dr. Craig Williamson
The questions that we ask in our Global Change Limnology Lab deal with how solar ultraviolet radiation, climate change, predation risk, and trophic interactions influence community structure in pelagic ecosystems. We view lakes as sentinels, integrators, and regulators of environmental change, with an emphasis on deciphering the most valuable sentinels of climate change. Projects take us all over the world from regions in the U.S. such as northeastern Pennsylvania, Alaska, Lake Tahoe, and the Beartooth Mountains, to the Canadian Rockies, Argentina, and New Zealand. Our questions are field based, but our approaches range from small scale laboratory experiments to the ecosystem level and involve comparative as well as experimental studies.
- Lakes serves as sentinels -or sensors- in the landscape, providing signals about changes in the surrounding environment. (Photo: Beauty Lake, MT)
- Using buoys and sensors, we collect high frequency lake data that interface with lake ecological observatory networks. (Photo: Jennie Brentrup, Lake Lacawac, PA)
- Field samples help us to better understand a lake's sentinel responses and the resulting biotic consequences. (Photo: Grinnell Lake, MT)
- Students couple laboratory and field experiments to answer their research questions. (Photo: Matt Meeks, Lake Lacawac, PA)
- Collaboration with other scientists enables us to answer large-scale ecological questions. (Photo: LEOW Meeting, Lacawac Sanctuary, PA)
Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate Change
As part of his service to the scientific and global community, Craig serves on several national and international panels and review boards including the United Nations Environment Programme Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (UNEP EEAP) on ozone depletion and climate change, and the Freshwater Indicators Technical Team for the National Climate Assessment (NCA FITT).
The UNEP EEAP keeps all of the nations that ratified the Montreal Protocol informed about the current status of ozone depletion and climate change through an annual report to the United Nations. The latest full UNEP EEAP report appeared in 2011 and is available at the UNEP EEAP web site, and in the special issue of Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. Smaller annual reports are also published each year, with major reports every 4 years.
The National Climate Assessment is a report to the United States President and Congress as well as to the public. The latest NCA report appeared in 2014.
Williamson, C. E., R. Zepp, R. Lucas, S. Madronich, A. T. Austin, C. L. Ballare, M. Norval, B. Sulzberger, A. Bais, R. McKenzie, S. Robinson, D.-P. Hader, N. D. Paul, J. F. Bornman. 2014. Solar ultraviolet radiation in a changing climate. Nature Climate Change 4: 434-441. PDF
Grimm, N. B., F. S. Chapin, B. Bierwagen, P. Gonzalez, P. M. Groffman, Y. Q. Luo, F. Melton, K. Nadelhoffer, A. Pairis, P. A. Raymond, J. Schimel, and C. E. Williamson. 2013. The impacts of climate change on ecosystem structure and function. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 474-482. Other highlights of the National Climate Assessment were published in this same special issue of FEE.
For more information on ozone depletion and UV radiation
NASA Ozone Hole Watch: This site has images, archives, and educational information on the Antarctic ozone hole.
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Ozone: This site has information on ozone, educational materials, and the WMO ozone bulletins- current and archives.
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS): This site has information on monitoring and mapping of both current and historical global ozone. This resource is useful for estimating UV exposure at different locations on Earth.
UV Disaster avoided - what if there were no Montreal Protocol? This site has images and graphs of projected ozone and UV exposure on Earth with and without the reduction of ozone-depleting substances according to the Montreal Protocol.