Abrami, P. C., Chambers, B., d'Apollonia, S., Farrell, M., & De Simone, C (1992). Group outcome: The relationship between group learning outcome, attributional style, academic achievement, and self-concept. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 17, 1-10.

Abrami, P. C., Chambers, B., Poulsen, C., Kouros, C., Farrell, M. & d"Apollonia, S., & De Simone, C. (in press). Classroom connections: Understanding and using cooperative learning. Toronto, Ontario: Harcourt Brace.

Abrami, P. C., Chambers, B., Poulsen, C., Kouros, C., Farrell, M., & d'Apollonia, S. (1994). Positve social interdependence and classroom climate. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 120, 327-346.

Abercrombie, M. L. (1974). Aims and Techniques of Group Teaching. London: Society for Research into Higher Education Ltd.
NOTE. This is a British orientation and focuses on several strategies including syndicate learning, associative group discussions and peer tutoring. Bruffee (985) recommends Abercrombie's work especially because of his work with "Collaborative Learning" with University of London medical students. [CL]

Ames, C. (1984). Competitive, cooperaive, and individualistic goal structures: A cognitive-motivational analysis, In R. E. Ames & C. Ames (Ed.) Research on motivation in education (Vol. 1). Student motivation. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 177-207.

Aronson, E., Blaney, N., Stephan, C. Sikes, J, & Snapp, M. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
NOTE. Basic volume on the "Jigsaw" technique, in which topics are divided into segments so each team member learns and teaches a specific component. [CP,PT]

Astin, A. W. (1987). Competition or cooperation? Teaching teamwork as a basic skill. Change, 19(5), 12-19. [GR]

Bar-Tal, D., & Saxe, L. (eds). (1978). Social Psychology of Education: Theory and Research. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
NOTE. An excellent source of articles linking social psychology and education. Several articles discuss cooperative learning strategies in the classroom. [GR]

Billson, J. M. (1986). The college classroom as a small group: Some implications for teaching and learning. Teaching Sociology, 14, 143-151.
NOTE. Effective Collaborative Learning in the college classroom is discussed with regard to 15 principles. A practical presentation of group development and related processes are brought to bare on classroom implementation of collaborative learning. [CL]

Bishop, W. (1988). Helping peer writing groups succeed. Teaching English in the Two Year College, 15, 120-125.
NOTE. This paper focuses on collaborative learning, especially in writing groups. It presents several issues which should be considered when attempting to set up a peer writing groups in college composition classes. [CL]

Bohlmeyer, E. M., & Burke, J. J. (1987). Selecting cooperative learning techniques: A consultative strategy guide. School Psychology Review, 16, 36-49. [CP]

Borresen, C. R. (1990). Success in introductory statistics with small groups. College Teaching , 38(1), 26-28.

Bossert, S. T. (1988). Cooperative activities in the classroom. Review of Research in Education, 15, 225-252.

Bouton, C. & Garth, R. (Eds.). (1983). Learning in groups. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
NOTE. Several authors discuss research and practice in "Collaborative Learning." This article provides a general review of collaborative learning in many different college disciplines. [CL]

Bruffee, K. A. (1984). Collaborative learning and the conversation of mankind. College English, 46(7), 635-652.

Bruffee, K. A. (1985). A Short course in writing. Boston: Little, Brown.
NOTE. Collaborative learning in college writing classes is detailed. Faculty involved in teaching writing as well as other disciplines which use writing would be strongly interested in this short text. [CL]

Bruffee, K. A. (1993). Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1 - 240.
NOTE. This book is an explanation and justification for substantial pedagogical and epistemological changes in teaching and learning. To be effective, Bruffee believes collaboration requires a fundamental shift in longstanding assumptions about teaching, learning, the role of the teacher, and why we do what we do in Post-Secondary Education. Bruffee makes a thoughtful case for his argument and suggests some realistic possibilities for reform which could transform education in positive ways.

Cohen, E. (1994). Designing groupwork (2nd edition). New York: Teachers College Press.

Collier, G. (Ed.). (1983). The management of peer-group learning: Syndicate methods in higher education. Guildford, Surrey: Society for Research into Higher Education Ltd.
NOTE. The British approach to peer-group learning is presented by diverse authors from post-secondary institutions. [CP,CL]

Cooper, J.L. (1990). Cooperative learning and college teaching: Tips from the trenches. The Teaching Professor, 5(5), 1-2. [GR]

Cooper, J. L., & Mueck, R. (1989). Cooperative/collaborative learning: Research and practice (primarily) at the collegiate level. The Journal of Staff, Program, and Organization Development, 7(3), 149-151. [GR]

Cooper, J. L., & Mueck, R. 1990. Student involvement in learning: Cooperative learning and college instruction. Journal of Excellence in College Teaching, 1, 68- 76.

Cooper, J. L., Sanchez, P., Prescott, S., & Lawrence, T. (1988). Cooperative learning and college instruction: Part II. A paper presentation to the Western Psychological Association,
NOTE. This paper describes characteristics of Cooperative Learning, positive outcomes of these techniques and 3 applications by professors in different disciplines. Student evaluations of the techniques are discussed with regard to their effectiveness, demonstrating that they perceived improved higher level thinking skills, general academic achievement and quality and frequency of student/student interactions. [CP]

Cooper, J. L., Prescott, S. Cook, L., & Cuseo, J. (1990). Cooperative Learning and College Instruction: Effective Use of Student Learning Teams. Long Beach - 400 Golden Shore - California, 90802 Institute for Teaching and Learning ($14.00).
NOTE. This handbook shows a case for using cooperative pegagogics at the college level, their critical features, how to organize the cooperative classroom, how to get started, how to integrate cooperative strategies into existing teaching styles (lectures, discussions, group & laboratory projects), typical concerns of college teachers considering the use of cooperative learning. In general, cooperative learn is presented as an example of effective educational principles applied to classroom teaching in the higher educational setting. The first author, James Cooper, also maintains an excellent annotated bibliography of cooperative/Collaborative Learning. It is available from him at the following address: School of Education, California State University Dominquez Hills, 1000 East Victoria Street, Carson, CA 90747. [GR]

Cuseo, J. (1992). Collaborative and cooperative learning in higher education: A proposed taxonomy. Cooperative learning and college teaching newsletter, 2(1), 2-5.

Damon, W. (1984). Peer education: The untapped potential. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 5, 331-143.

Dansereau, D. F. (1987). Transfer from cooperative to individual studying. Journal of Reading, April, 1987, 614-618.
NOTE. This article contains a good description of Dansereau's (an associates) scripted cooperative dyad technique for learning complex textbook materials. While these techniques have been used primarily with undergraduate general psychology students, they have also been found effective with engineering students learning technical materials. [PT]

Davidson, N. (1990). The small-group discovey method in secondary and college-level mathematics. In N. Davidson (Ed.), Cooperative learning in mathematics: A handbook for teachers (pp. 335-361). Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley. [CP]

Dedic, H., Rosenfield, S., d'Apollonia, S, & De Simone, C. (1994). Using Cooperative Concept Mapping in College Science Classes. Cooperative Learning and College Teaching. 4(3), 12-15.

DiPardo, A., Warshauer-Freedman, S. (1988). Peer response groups in the writing classroom: Theoretic foundations and new directions. Review of Educational Research, 58, 119-149.
NOTE. This article recommends the moving away from teacher- controlled response groups to student-centered peer talk during the writing process. It reviews the pedagogical literature on response groups, and places the literature in the context of current theories of teaching and learning or writing, and then examine the small number of studies of peer response groups. [CL]

Ede, L., (1987). The case for collaboration. Paper presentated at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, Atlanta, GA. ERIC DOCUMENT ED 282-212.

Ede, L., & Lunsford, A. (1990). Singular texts/plural authors: Perspectives on collaborative writing Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Dimeff, L. A., & Fox, S. L. (1989). Reciprocal peer tutoring: A multimodal assessment of effectiveness with college students. Teaching of Psychology, 16(3), 133-135.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Riggio, R. E., Connelly, S., & Dimeff, L. A. (1989). Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on academic achievement and psychological adjustment: A component analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology. 81(2), 173-177.
NOTE. Both of the above articles assess the effects of a technique described as "reciprocal peer tutoring"(RPT) on the academic performance of college students. Comparative measures of the impact of this procedure on levels of student distress and course satisfaction are made. Results indicate greater achievement, reduction in distress, and greater student satisfaction found in the RPT condition than in two other comparison conditions. [PT]

Feichtner, S. B., & Davis, E. A. (1984-5). Why some groups fail: A survey of students' experiences with learning groups. The Organizational Behavior Teaching Review, 9(4), 58-71.
NOTE. A practical description of good and bad collaborative learning procedures in college instruction. [CL]

Feichtner, S. B., & Michaelsen, L. K. (1984). Giving students a part in the process: An innovative approach to team learning. College Student Journal, 18, 335-344.
NOTE. Team learning in heterogeneous groups is described.[CL,CP]

Feldman, R. S. (Ed.). (1986). The social psychology of education: Current research and theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
NOTE. An excellent selection of articles relating social psychology and its applications to educational settings. [GR]

Gabelnick, F., MacGregor, J., Mathews, R. S., & Smith, B. L. (1990). Learning communities: Creating conections among students, faculty, and disciplines. New Diretions for Teaching and Learning, No. 41. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gere, A. R. (1987). Writing groups: History, theory and implications.. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
NOTE. Theories of collaborative learning and language development are presented. Piagetian and Vygotskian approaches to language acquisition and cognitive development are a primary focus of this short book which details the importance of Vygotsky to the Collaborative/Cooperative Learning field. Super good annotated bibliography included. [CL]

Gerstein, J. S., Apperson, L. A., & Peterson, S. E. (1991). Factors influencing Achievement and Productivity in cooperating groups of adults. Paper presented to annual meetings of the AERA, Chicago, IL, April, 1991.

Glidden, J., & Kurfiss, J. G. (1990). Small-group discussion in Philosophy 101. College Teaching, 38(1), 3-8.

Golub, J. (Ed). (1988). Focus on collaborative learning. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Goldschmid, B., & Goldschmid, M. (1976). Peer teaching in higher education: A veview. Higher Education, 5(1), 9-33.

Goodsell, A., Maher, M., & Tinto, V., with Smith, B., & J MacGregor. (1992). Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. University Park, PA: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. 1-118. (Volume II, 1994, too!!)
NOTE. This is an up-to-date (1992[94]) resource book on collaborative learning. It includes several "how to" articles as well as a most complete and annotated bibliography. Highly recommended!

Graves, N., & Graves, T. (Executive Editors), (1990). Cooperative Learning: The Magazine for Cooperation in Education, 11(1).
NOTE. This magazine is the official organ of the International Association For The Study of Cooperation In Education (IASCE). This issue is entitled, "Cooperative Learning: A Resource Guide," and contains one of the most up-to-date (as of September, 1990) descriptions of books and related documents associated with the implementation of cooperative learning. While most of the materials address settings other than higher education, there are two pages worth of annotated materials relevant to college classroom teaching. Many of the materials, especially the descriptions of books about "General Introductions to Cooperative Learning" and other "Collected Readings In Cooperative Learning" are excellent resources for those interested college teaching. This issue is available from Nan and Ted Graves, Box 1582, Santa Cruz, CA 95061-1582. [GR]

Hall, R. H., Rocklin, T. R., Dansereau, D. F., Skaggs, L. P., O'Donnell, A. M., Lambiotte, J. G., & Young, M. D. (1988). The role of individual differences in the cooperative learning of technical material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 172-178.

Hanson, P. G. (1981). Learning through groups: A trainer's basic guide. San Diego, CA: University Associates.
NOTE. Group learning techniques from the human relations trainer perspective are reviewed. [GR,CP,CL]

Hassard, J. (1990). Science experiences: Cooperative learning and the teaching of science. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley. [CP]

Hawkins, T. (1976). Group inquiry techniques for teaching writing. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills and National Council of Teachers of English. ERIC DOCUMENT ED 128-813.
NOTE. A team learning strategy for teaching college writing is described in the practically oriented monograph. [CL]

Herbert, K. (1988). Collaborative learning: Magic in the classroom. Exercise-Exchange, 34(1), 24-28.

Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., & Miller, N., (Eds.), (1992). Interaction in cooperative groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University PRess, pp. 102- 119.

Huber, G. (Editor), (1993). Neue Perspektiven der Kooperation. Tubingen, Germany: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1991). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
NOTE. Systematic methods for using cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning are discussed. [GR,CP]

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1992). Positive interdependence: Key to effective cooperation. In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz and N. Miller (Eds.). Interaction in cooperative groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 174- 199.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (1987). Joining together: Group theory and group skills (Third edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
NOTE. An excellent source documenting the association between Cooperative Learning and the Group Dynamics movement. Each chapter provides a multitude of experiential activities. Traditional group dynamics topics including leadership, group decision making, group goals and goal structures, communication, conflict, cohesion, power, etc. are discussed especially within the framework of teams and cooperative learning. [GR,CP]

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (1986). Academic conflict among students: Controversy and learning. In R. S. Feldman (Ed.), The social psychology of education: Current research and theory (pp. 199-231). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
NOTE. A technique called "structured controversy" is described as having different members of the same learning team assume different positions concerning an issue in an attempt to ultimately maximize learning for all team members through discussion and research relating to the differing positions. The Johnson's suggest that their technique sparks conceptual conflict within students, creates epistemological curiosity and promotes higher-level thinking. [CP]

Johnson, R. T., Johnson, D. W., & Smith, K. A. (1988). Active Learning: Cooperation in the college
classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. NOTE. Several cooperative learning strategies which may be used in college settings are briefly described. An excellent discussion of problems with traditional lecture (frontal) presentation are described. [GR,CP]

Kadel, S, & Keehner, J. A. (1994). Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education, Volume II. University Park, PA: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment.
NOTE. This is an up-to-date (1994) resource book on collaborative learning. It includes several "how to" articles as well as a most complete and annotated bibliography. Highly recommended!

Kagan, S. (1989). Cooperative learning: Resources for Teachers. Riverside, CA: University of California.
NOTE. An idea/resource manual on team learning, jigsaw, and Co-op Co-op, Kagan's own variation on the "Group Investigation" model. [GR,CP]

Kagan S. (1993). Cooperative learning. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Kagan Cooperative Learning.

Kohn, A. (1992). No contest: The case against competition. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
NOTE. An excellent source for the many arguments in favor of cooperative pedagogy. While written in a journalistic style, it draws on much of the empirical literature to justify the implementation of cooperation teaching practices. [GR]

Kouros, C. d"Apollonia, S., Poulsen, C., Howe, N., & Abrami, P. C. (1993). Observing cooperative group work in college biology classrooms: The use of a structured scheme. In G. Huber (Ed.), Neue Perspektiven der Kooperation. Tubingen, Germany: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, pp. 191-202.

Larson, C. O., & Dansereau, D. F. (1986). Cooperative learning in dyads. Journal of Reading, 29(6), 516-520.
NOTE. This article provides a brief review of cooperative learning and goes on to describe in detail the Scripted Cooperative Dyadic approach primarily associated with Donald Dansereau. See Dansereau (1987) above, as well. [PT]

Lindblad, J., & Cohen, S. (in press). Collaborative learning: Encouraging responsible diversity in undergraduate education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Higher Education.

Lippitt, R., Watson, J., & Westley, B. (1958). The dynamics of planned change: A comparative study of principles and techniques. New York: Harcourt & Brace.
NOTE. Chapters 5 & 6 of this book detail the multi-step team problem solving process of social engineering which is grounded in social science. This is the model upon which Sherman & Hazleton's (1988) Student Team Project paper is based. [CP]

Meyers, C., & Jones, T. (1993). Promoting Active Learning: Stratagies for the College Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Millis, B. J. (1990). Helping faculty build learning communities through cooperative groups. In L. Hilsen (ed.), To improve the academy: Resources for student faculty, and institutional development, 10, 43-58. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press. [CP]

Millis, B. J., Sherman, L. W., & Cottell, P. G. (1993) Stacking the DEC to promote critical thinking: Applications in three disciplines. Cooperative Learning and College Teaching, 3(3), 12-14.

Michaelsen, L., Watson, W. E., & Sharder, C. B. (1984-5). Informative testing -- a practical approach for tutoring with groups. The organizational Behavior Teaching Review, 9(4), 18-33.
NOTE. Using a mastery approach to evaluation (criterion- referenced testing), the authors describe a collaborative learning strategy based on organizational behavior which is designed to diagnose and remediate students' learning. [CL]

Mullen, B., & Copper, C. (1994). The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 215-227.

Nastasi, B. K., & Cleme, Duglas H. (1991) Research on cooperative learning: Implications for practice. School Psychology Review, 20(1), 110-131.
Note. This article provides an overview of research on cooperative learning with an emphasis on issues related to the implementation of cooperative learning groups. Specific benefits of cooperative learning for cognitive development, academi achievement, and social-emotional growth are reviewed, and a theoretical rationale for explaining such benefits is presented. Types of groups and benefits of each are described. Specific questions relevant to the formation and implementation of cooperative learning groups are answered on the basis of research. Finally, a model for implementation is described which emphasizes the enhancement of higher-order thinking, effectance motivation, and social skills.

Newcomb, T. M., & Wilson, E. V. (1966). College peer groups. Chicao: Aldine.

Poulsen, C., Howe, N., & Abrami, P. C., Kouros, C., & Chambers, B. (1993). Observing cooperative group work in geometry: The use of running records.. In G. Huber (Ed.), Neue Perspektiven der Kooperation. Tubingen, Germany: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, pp. 191-202.

Radebaugh, M. R. & Kazemek, F. E. (1989). Cooperative learning in college reading and study skills classes. Journal of Reading, 32, 414-418.
NOTE. The use of Cooperative learning in college study skills classes is described. Special attention to literacy as a social construct is the primary focus of this article. It is suggested that this technique may be useful in many other academic disciplines and courses. [CP,PT]

Romer, K. T. (1985). Collaboration: New forms of learning, new ways of thinking. The Form for Liberal Education. 8(2), pp. 3-19.
NOTE. This article is a compendium collaborative models presently being used at colleges and universities throughout the United States including Alverno College, CUNY-Queens College, University of Delaware, Depauw University, Dickinson College, University of Minnesota at Morris, Pace University, SUNY-Stony Brook, Tufts University and Washington and Lee University. Excellent brief descriptions of the various models are provided along with a very comprehensive annotated bibliography. [CL]

Romer, K., & Wipple, W. (1990). Collboration across the power line. College Teaching, 39(2), 66-70.

Salomon, G., & Globerson, T. (1989). When teams do not function the way they ought to. Internatinal Journal of Educational Research, 13, 89-99.

Schmuck, R. A., & Schmuck,P. A. (1992). Group Processes in The Classroom (6th edition). Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown.
NOTE. A good over all source on group dynamics. Most cooperative learning strategies are discussed at some point throughout their book. It is oriented more toward elementary and secondary public schools. Nevertheless, it is well documented and grounded in the group dynamics movement. The Schmucks were students of Ronald Lippitt. [GR]

Schnase, J. L., & E. L. Cunnius, E. L. (1995). Proceedings of CSCL'95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NM: Lawrence Erlbaum.
NOTE. This book is replete in examples of the use of collaborative learning strategies which are facilitated by computer techologies. It is an excellent source information for technological applications cooperative/collaborative learning in an "information rich" environment. As of 1996, it is state of the art! Most of the applications are highly influenced by "constructivist" theory based on the theories of Vygotsky. Many of the papers are available electronically at the following URL:

Schomberg, S. F. (1986). Strategies for active teaching and learning in university classrooms. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Sharan, S. (1994). Handbook of Cooperative Learning Methods. Westport, CN: Grenwood Press.

Sharan, S. & Sharan, Y. (1992). Expanding cooperative learning through group investigation. New York: Teachers College Press.

Sharan, S. & Sharan, Y. (1976). Small Group Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publication. 256 pp.
NOTE. One of the early and seminal publications in the field of cooperative pedagogy. It's focus is on the Group Investigation Model which these two Israeli's have constructed. [CP]

Shepperd, J. A. (1993). Productivity loss in performance groups: A motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 67-81.

Sherman, L. W. (1976). Formative evaluation, mastery grading, and peer directed small group discussions in an introductory educational psychology class. In J. B. Maas & D. A. Kleiber (eds), Directory of Teaching Innovations In Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 445-446.
NOTE. Describes a small group instructional procedure used in large lecture sections of an introductory educational psychology class. [CP]

Sherman, L. W. (1988). A pedagogical strategy for teaching human development: Dyadic essay confrontations through writing and discussion. A paper presentation to the 8th annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, November 5-6, 1988. Oxford, OH: Miami University. ERIC DOCUMENT ED 305-629 and ERIC DOCUMENT ED 321-721.
NOTE. These papers describe a Cooperative Learning technique based on writing, discussion/ confrontation, and resolution of ideas related to human development classes.

Sherman, L. W., & Woy-Hazleton, S. (1988). The student Team Project: A long-term cooperatively structured pedagogy forgraduate environmental studies. A paper presentation to the 4th Conference on Cooperation in Education. Tel Aviv, Israel, July 5, 1988. ERIC DOCUMENT ED 299-872.
NOTE. Describes a 10 step algorithm for team environmental problem-solving which is based on Lippitt's (1958) model. Primarily used in an Interdisciplinary Graduate program in Environmental Studies. [CP]

Sherman, L. W. (1991). Cooperative learning in post secondary eduation: Implications from social psychology for active learning experiences. A presentation to the annual meetings of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL, 3-7 April, 1991. This paper!

Sherman, L. W. (1995). A postmodern, Constructivist and Cooperative Pedagogy for teaching educational psychology, Assisted by computer mediated communications. In J. L. Schnase, & E. L. Cunnius (Proceedings of CSCL'95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning). Mahwah, NM: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 308-311.
NOTE. A longer more complete version of this paper is also available at the following URL:

Slavin, R. E., (1995). Cooperative learning: Theory, Research and practice (2nd edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Slavin, R., Sharan, S., Kagan, S. Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. Webb, C., & Schmuck, R. (Eds.). (1985). Learning to cooperate, cooperating to learn. New York: Plenum Press.
NOTE. One of the best introductions to the area of cooperative pedagogy. While its focus is primarily on elementary and secondary education levels, the explanations of a variety of methods have relevance for post secondary education, as well. Five sections of the book cover 1) basic concepts, 2) Internal dynamics of cooperative learning, 3) cooperative learning in mathematics and science, 4) cooperative learning and the multi-ethnic classroom, and 5) Learning to cooperate. [GR]

Smith, K. A. (1984). Structured controversies. Engineering Education, 74, 306-309.
NOTE. The Johnson's et al.1986) structured controversy approach to cooperative learning is outlined with in the context of a college engineering course. [CP]

Smith, K. A. (1986). Coopertive learning groups. In S. F. Schomberg (Ed.), Strategies for active teaching and learning in university classrooms. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Smith, K. A., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1981). Structuring learning goals to meet the goals of engineering education. Engineering Education, 72, 221- 226.
NOTE. Cooperative learning strategies in collegiate engineering courses are discussed. Generalizations to other disciplines are made. [CP]

Webb. N. M., (1992). Testing a theoretical model of student interactin and learning in small groups. In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz and N. Miller (Eds.). Interaction in cooperative groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University PRess, pp. 102- 119.

Weinstein, C. S. (1991). The classroom as a social context for learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 493-525.
NOTE. This review presents an ecological psychology discussion of several classroom "activity settings," of which cooperative learning is highlighted. The influence of the cooperative learning behavior setting on the social hierarchy of classrooms is emphasized. [GR]

Wiener, H. S. (1986). Collaborative learning in the classroom: A guide to evaluation. College English, 48, 52-61.
NOTE. The role of the instructor in establishing collaborative learning in college courses is discussed. [CL]

Whipple, W. (1987). Collaborative learning: Recognizing it when we see it. American Association for Higher Education, 40(2), 3-7.
NOTE. The author is the chair of the Collaborative Learning Action Community (CUE) of the AAHE. This paper reviews characteristics of Collaborative Learning. [CL]

Whitman, N. E. (1988). Peer teaching: To teach is to learn twice. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Higher Education. [PT]

Educational Leadership. (1987). Brandt, R. S., Executive Editor. Journal of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 45(3), pp. 4-75.

Educational Leadership, (1989).Slavin, R. E., Guest Editor. Journal of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 47(4), pp. 4-66.
NOTE. Both of the above journal issues contain a special focus on cooperative learning. Several authors from around the world present the latest views with regard to cooperative pedagogy as applied at elementary secondary and post-secondary levels of education. Highly recommend for anyone interested in the contemporary uses of Cooperative Learning at any level of education. [GR,CP,CL,PT]

Cooperative Learning: The Magazine for Cooperation in Education. (1993) Special Issue: "Cooperative Learning 101: Applications in Higher Education." 13(3). Entire Issue.
NOTE. This entire issue is devoted to Post-secondary educational uses of Cooperative Learning. Contributing authors are from many discilplines and write about applications, theory and research on CL in the Higher Education environment.

12 APRIL, 1996.